Carnival of El Callao, a festive representation of a memory and cultural identity
Inscribed in 2016 (11.COM) on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
The Carnival of El Callao, practised in communities of Venezuela, is associated with cannes brulées emancipation celebrations in French-speaking islands of the Caribbean. Running from January to March, the traditional practice features parades of people dressed as characters from history and fantasy, as well as calypso music, dancing and concerts throughout town streets with up to 3,000 people taking part. The parades are led by the madamas (the pillars of Callaoense identity representing Antillean matrons considered the communicators of values, who dance and wear colourful dresses); the medio-pintos (young people that entertain audiences by smudging charcoal on people who do not give a donation); the mineros (gold miners); and the diablos (people who wear masks, dance and carry a whip to maintain order). Other adults and young people wear costumes and also join in. The carnival highlights Callaoense history and diversity honouring its Afro-Antillean links and other community influences, reinforces its cultural identity, promotes unity and encourages younger generations to discover their heritage. Intergenerational transmission of the practice occurs mainly within families and schools run by tradition bearers where children learn skills so they can participate in the carnival like writing tunes, playing an instrument, singing, dancing or making masks.