Name of State Party
Name of element
Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian epic
Coaxing ritual for camels (2015)
Folk long song performance technique of Limbe performances - circular breathing (2011)
Mongol Biyelgee, Mongolian traditional folk dance (2009)
Mongolian calligraphy (2013)
Mongolian traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites (2017)
Traditional music of the Tsuur (2009)
Since the inscription of the Mongol Tuuli in the UNESCO List of Cultural Heritage in Need of the Urgent Safeguarding, the positive effect has outweighed the negative. Mongolia has created a favorable legal environment for the safeguarding of the heritage element inscribed in the UNESCO List, implemented targeted projects, and improved the registration and documentation of Mongolian epics, and created a integrated database that meets international standards. Public awareness of Mongolian epics has increased, the number of performers has increased, and practitioner and apprentice relations have improved. As of 2021, there are 22 practitioners registered in the State Registration and Information Database of Cultural Heritage.
The main progress made in Mongolia during the reporting period is that on January 29, 2019, Battulga Khaltmaa, the former President of Mongolia issued the Decree No. 13 “Promoting of the Mongolian Heroic Epic” in order to spread the heroic epic, the proud heritage of the Mongolian people and the source of oral wisdom passed down from generation to generation.
On February 13, 2019, the Government of Mongolia approved the “National Program for the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage” by Resolution No. 68. Accordingly, by the order of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science (April 23, 2019, No. A/235).
Mongolia has carried out the following main activities in the field of safeguarding of Mongolian epic. This includes:
In order to introduce the best samples of Mongolian epics to the public, a copy was made in the national Mongolian script and stored with and honor at the Government Palace. It was decided that every year, on the third day of the first month of winter, heroic epics are performed in the State Ceremony Hall.
The practitioner of the Mongolian epic at a high level of skill was selected through a public opinion poll, and in 2019, Baatarjav Erdenetsogt, a famous performer, and Baldandorj Avirmed in 2020, were awarded the highest state title of “Honored Cultural Worker of Mongolia”.
A.Baldandorj, who is practicing the Epic in his 9th generations and is transmitting this to his children. In accordance to the “Procedure for awarding monetary prizes to heritage practitioners who made significant contributions to the promotion and dissemination of intangible cultural heritage at the national and global levels” approved by the 354th Resolution of the Government of Mongolia was awarded an honorary certificate and a prize of 30.0 million MNT. In 2020, a total of 21 heritage practitioners from 21 provinces and the capital city were nominated for this competition.
According to the request of the local people, an attempt was made to revive the Khalkh Tuuli with the professional participation of scientists and researchers of the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences. 5 forgotten epic performing traditions in Umnugobi were revived in their original environment. To do that researchers at the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (MAS) based their recollections on evidence from the recordings of the province's epic performers recorded on audiotapes in 1961-1983, and stored in the folklore collection.
In 2017, the Science and Technology Foundation project under the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia covered the territory of four countries: western Mongolia, Russian Buryatia, Kalmyk Mongolians, Altai Mountains, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. As a result of a 40-day international research team (including researchers from Mongolia, Russia and China) that covered 20,000 kilometers by car, the “World Epic and Jangar” International Scientific Conference was successfully organized in 2018 to promote the Mongolian epic internationally. During the reporting period, 4 monographs and dozens of scientific articles and reports were published.
Coordination Officer for Policy Implementation of Intangible Cultural Heritage Department of Cultural Heritage Ministry of Culture
Ministry of Culture of Mongolia, Sukhbaatar district, 7th sub-district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
+976 51-265617; +976 99057308
Other relevant information
The Mongolian epic is a great historical poem of the people who praised the stable state and happy society represented by an equestrian hero, which is the dream of the future well-being of Mongolians, that has come down to us today, transmitted with help of the minds, words and customs of the century-old performers.
Epics are first and foremost an expression of the highest level of skill in the mother tongue. The average length of Oirat Mongolian epics is 1500-2000 lines, and the average length of Khalkha epics is about 1000 lines. For example, a version of the epic “Bum Erdene” has 51,265 lines of poetry, the most important of which is transmitted by oral performance.
Mongolian epics range from ancient mythology to folklore, worldview, history, ethnography, religion, customs, traditions, beauty, morality, language, and music. It is a complex work that contains many elements of the subject. Therefore, it is a source of spirituality and art of the Mongolian ethnic group and a unique feature that distinguishes Mongolians from other nations.
Mongolian epics are recited by people who specialize and inherited the art of composing epics with the use of musical instruments such as tovshuur, morin khuur, and ekhil. It is a custom that is recited with a special purpose, not for the purpose of rejoicing. For example, Mongolian epics are classified as hard and soft, and the purpose of the ritual is clear, such as when a new family is married and before hunting. Therefore, Mongolian epics are not limited to the art of words and retain the characteristics of ancient art.
The narrators were masters of words that met the intellectual and artistic needs of the country's citizens. According to academician Ts. Damdinsuren, they were "a theater with one actor, playing for the people the role of a trio - acting to watch, music to listen and books to read at the same time." Today, most of the epic performers are well versed in Mongolian traditions and have inherited a variety of traditional arts and folklore in addition to epics. For example, the performer A.Baldandorj will play a 12-hour epic and sing folk songs, and perform throat singing. E.Baatarjav plays ancient and rare musical instruments and plays tsuur. Under the influence of such performers, many youths ethno-bands were formed and consulted with them.
The original purpose of the Tuuli is still alive and important in the lives of the people, with its ceremonial and ritual nature.
A report on the state of the Tuuli heritage element in 2017 states that “by the beginning of the 21st century, Mongolia's living tradition of performing epics is on the verge of extinction and oblivion”, but in recent years, the viability of the Mongolian Tuuli has improved to a certain extent. For example, registration and documentation have been improved and the skills of performers have been identified, eligible performers have been awarded badges and certificates, regional research has been conducted, a series of volumes on the best of Mongolian epics have been published, and the quality of scholars' education has been improved. However, there are still some challenges to the current viability of the Mongolian epic.
- Negative influences on the performing the epics began to be observed. For example, Mongolian epics have traditionally had a special ritual character, and herders invite performers to recite epics in order to increase their herds and have a better living (for example, families that couldn't have children to have children, for the elderly to stay healthy and live longer life). This tradition is still followed in rural areas. In urban areas, however, the use some parts of epics, rather than, as a form of performing art is on the rise.
- Epic performance festivals and competitions are organized in large numbers or announced not at the appropriate season, has a negative impact on the quality of epic performance. In other words, although there has never been a tradition of competition and selection of performers and heritage practitioners, nowadays there are more and more competitions with high prizes at locally and abroad, which may lead the performer to focus only on preparing for competitions and festivals. In addition to the talent of the performer, it is necessary to take into account not only the innate talent, but also the knowledge and adherence to national traditions, mastery of native language skills, moral example, and real contribution to society.
- Mongolia has achieved good results in publishing, disseminating, and safeguarding epic poems. However, it should be noted that the level of research is insufficient.
- In Mongolia, the distribution of epics was stable, and there were epicenters of epics in ethnic groups, but for social, historical, and political reasons, most centers were largely extinct. However, there are elderly people in the so-called extinct epic centers who are not real performers, but who know the story, memorize it, and recite it within the family. They are often unaware of the importance of epic heritage or understand it as a culture that only exists in ethnic groups that have relatively well-preserved traditions. Therefore, there is a need to revive the epic heritage of ethnic groups that are considered “forgotten” and to support an equal approach to the recognition of the heritage element of other ethnic groups that have preserved the Tuuli heritage.?????
After the “Mongolian Epic” was inscribed on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, the President of Mongolia issued a decree on “Promoting Heroic Epics” in 2019 and the Government approved the “National Program for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage”.
Starting from 2020, the Minister of Culture of Mongolia has signed annual agreements with the governors of 21 provinces and the capital city regarding the protection of the cultural heritage, which has increased the role and participation of local governments in the protection of cultural heritage.
In 2021, the Government of Mongolia decided to establish Culture Departments in the provinces. It is hoped that the reorganization of the Province Governor's Office into a “Department of Education and Culture” with a small number of people in charge of cultural issues will improve the preservation and safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage, the quality and access to cultural services, and the implementation of state cultural policy.
During the reporting period, the study focused on the specifics of Mongolian Epics, focusing on documenting, and registering epics, conducting examination and festivals. First, to create a cultural environment for epics (to prepare listeners and readers, to emphasize the purpose of rituals, to raise knowledge of the students on epics, etc.) and second, to make the best of the Mongolian epics known to general public and promote practitioners.
Within the framework of the above goal, the following objectives were set. These include:
Implement targeted projects to safeguard “Mongolian Epic” and its cultural environment as a matter of priority, and to promote it to public.
To organize scientific, theoretical, and practical conferences on the study and promotion of Mongolian Epics, performers and its cultural environment,
Improve the methodology of registration and documentation of Mongolian Epics; to develop and enforce common standards in soums, districts, provinces and the capital city; to register and document schools and repertoire of epic performers practicing the heritage element at a high level of skill,
To carry out certain activities to perform Mongolian Epics in their authentic environment and to safeguard the cultural space of epics.
Cooperation between local, governmental and non-governmental organizations aimed at safeguarding and promoting the “Mongolian Epic” will be improved. Targeted projects in areas with relatively good transmission of Tuuli will be successfully implemented.
International and domestic events to determine, study and promote the spread of the “Jangar” epic among Mongolian epics will be organized.
Registration of epics and performers will be updated every year, and the soum, district, provinces and capital city funds will be enriched.
Multi-faceted events to promote and glorify the highly skilled performers, to perform the epic in a realistic way, and to show their skills will be organized regularly, and the quality of the apprentice trainings will be raised.
Scholars and researchers from many countries will work together to promote the study of Mongolian epics at the national and regional levels, and the publication of their works will be a good example for the world.
Following measures were implemented:
1. Improving the legal environment:
-The Decree of the President of Mongolia on “Promoting of Mongolian Heroic Epics” enshrines the duty of all citizens to safeguard, research, transmit, promote internationally the heritage element, and to support performers, researchers, and practitioners.
-In July 2021, the Law on Cultural Heritage Protection was amended. The article 14.1.10. of the law amended to "Protect and revive the authenticity and integrity of historical and cultural immovable monuments listed in the World Heritage Tentative List and the World Heritage List, safeguard and strengthen the viability of intangible cultural heritage listed in the UNESCO Representative List and List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding to include measures in the annual state budget and implement them;". The amendment will take effect on January 1, 2022.
2. In the field of registration and research:
-The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science selected the project “Comprehensive research, promotion and innovation of Jangar Tuul” by the NGO “Jangar Studies” and implemented it in 2017-2018. Within the framework of the project, the "Jangar Study 2017", a joint international research team of Mongolian, Russian and Chinese scientists, with aim to identify the distribution of the Jangar Tuul, traveled 20,000 km and conducted survey in Mongolia, Russia's Buryatia, Bashkortostan, Kalmykia, the Altai Republic, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. During the trip, 6,800 minutes of video and more than 5,000 photos were made and 15 TV series content were produced. In 2018, as a result of this expedition, the “World Epics and Jangar” International Scientific Symposium and Poetry Festival was successfully organized in Ulaanbaatar.
-The Institute of Language and Literature of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences implemented a joint international project “The annotate catalog of traditional motifs of the Mongolian people” (2018-2020) in collaboration with Mongolian-speaking Buryat and Kalmyk scholars in Russia.
3. In the field of training and promotion:
-The Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports implemented a project to direct the drama “Jangar” to local theaters, and in 2018, the Khovd Music and Drama Theater staged the 7-act anthem “Legendary King, the Fierce Jangar”, which demonstrates the courage of the heroes of the Jangar epic and the progress they make in consultation and decision-making. This was the first drama based on an epic.
-Zavkhan province's Childrens Theatre is preparing a modern play based on the “Jangar” epic for children.
-A cooperation agreement was signed between the Institute of Language and Literature, the Governor's Office of Umnugovi province, and the Department of Education, Culture, and Arts, on the “Revitalization of Gobi Khalkh Tuul” project. Project was successfully implemented, a total of 5 epics were revived. In March 2019, a research team was set up in the province to revive the Gobi Khalkh epics. Researchers at the Institute of Linguistics have begun a recovery experiment based on the full transcripts and research materials of the eight epics recorded on tape in 1957, 1974, 1983. At the same time, after selecting people who had heard the epic recited at an early age, and conducting two trainings, the reviving measures were implemented in stages. So far, 10 adults have learned and practiced 5 epics, and in 2021 they successfully participated in the International Epics Festival "At the call of the land of Olonkho" organized by the Russian National Commission for UNESCO and the Yakutia Olonkho Center in Russia. The main difficulty in reviving the Khalkh Tuul was the perception that many Khalkhs did not have epics, only the Oirat Mongols, and that much effort had to be made to correct and expand knowledge about them.
-The “Khaan Tuulisiin Urguu (Palace for Khaan Epic)” has established a tradition of performing epics on the eve of Tsagaan Sar (Lunar New Year), the traditional Mongolian holiday, and broadcast them nationwide. This event was further confirmed by the decree of the President of Mongolia “Honoring the Heroic Epic”, and on the occasion of the annual Tsagaan Sar holiday, the third day of the first month of spring, and the third day of the first month of winter on the occasion of Mongolian Pride Day, heroic epics will be performed at the State Ceremony Hall. In the past, people used to go to Buddhist temples to hear Tibetan prayers and seek refuge in order to live happily without pain in the coming year, but now some people prefer to go to epic performing places to participate in the epic performing traditions.
-“Enlightenment Campaign” initiated by the Prime Minister of Mongolia, the DAS Ikher Foundation and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation jointly published and disseminated the original source of the “Jangar” epic. Five copies each were donated to 376 branches of the state public libraries.
-In 2019, the epic performer B.Bayarmagnai gave a master class lecture on “Melody Night of Oral Culture”. He is a state-certified practitioner who completely performs “Jangar” and “Geser” epics. The event was co-organized by the Government Implementing Agency Department of Culture and Arts, the "Temuulel Records" NGO, and the intangible cultural heritage practitioners.
-In 2020, at the initiative of the wrestler Bumbayar D, the originals of “Jangar” and “Geser” epics were archived on a golden and silver flash drives and donated to the Uvs province museum. The wrestler fulfilled his civic duty by combining 12 chapters of “Jangar”, and 50 chapters of “Geser” epics, enriching the museum exhibits with his own resources for promoting to youths.
4. For supporting practitioners:
-A public poll was conducted to identify the heritage practitioners of the Mongolian epic with in high level of skill, and in 2019 Baatarjav Erdenetsogt, a well-known Mongolian epic singer, and in 2020 Baldandorj Avirmed were awarded the “Honored Cultural Worker of Mongolia”.
-In accordance with the “Procedure for awarding monetary prizes to heritage practitioners who have made a significant contribution to the promotion and dissemination of intangible cultural heritage at the national and global levels” approved by the 354th Resolution of the Government of Mongolia, A. Baldandorj was awarded an honorary certificate and prize of 30.0 million MNT.
In 2019-2021, the Department of Education, Culture and Arts of Umnugovi province jointly with the Institute of Language and Literature carried out the work of reviving 8 epics. These epics were recorded on tape and by hand in 1961, 1974, and 1983 as part of the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences' collection of Khalkha folklore. The institute's oral historians have recorded these epics from tapes, cleaned them in a professional recording studio, converted them to MP3 format, made them available for listening, and used them as teaching aids and guides for epic performers. In May 2020, Umnugobi cultural experts and linguists conducted a research in the province and interviewed a woman named Horloo, who lives in Dalanzadgad, the province center. Based on this “living” tradition, theoretical and methodological training on Khalkh Tuul teaching was organized in July 2020, U.Batjargal, S.Munkhjargal, J.Dagvasamba, Shoovdor, Yo.Gandulam, B.Myagmarsuren participated in the training. According to the program, 6 people expressed their desire to learn about the structure, classification and features of Mongolian and Khalkh epics and to understand the nature of Gobi epics. They used the time they were at home under COVID quarantine to prepare the epics. At present, 3 out of 5 epics are performed in the original way, 2 epics are performed with the accompaniment of a musical instrument, and performed in the foal branding ritual.
In addition, the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences has successfully compiled and prepared for publication book (520 pages A4), including audio album, of local dialects and oral literature, including the epics of the Gobi Khalkhs.
The epic performer Bayarmagnai visited schools and kindergartens in Arkhangai, Sukhbaatar, Bulgan, Zavkhan provinces and Darkhan city and gave concerts and lectures. A total of 8,000 students took part in the physical demonstration and listening to the epics. Three curricula have been developed with the participation of teachers and experts in the field of oral literature. He first meets with the teachers and then teaches the students in a playful and interesting way. Recently, free and online classes have been offered to children who want to study. The epic performer B.Bayarmagnai is well supported by schools and cultural experts, Mongolian language and literature teachers, and teaching methods associations. He said the only cost of the trip are petrol and food, so he had to negotiate with the school and people in advance. Currently, he receives a fee of 3,000 MNT from the school or from the family, and 1,000 MNT of that donated to the current soum school. Prior to the COVID outbreak, he earned about 15 million MNT from his programs and classes, of which 3/1 or 5 million MNT was returned to the schools for the promotion of cultural heritage. The performer Bayarmagnai has archived the full recording of his performance of epics “Geser” and “Jangar” as DVDs and CDs at the Mongolian National Radio, the National Center for Cultural Heritage, and the Intellectual Property Office.
-“JANGAR-Tuuli comprehensive research and its innovation” (2017-2018) innovation project was successfully implemented. In 2018, the project successfully organized the “World Epics and Jangar” International Scientific Symposium and Epics Festival in Ulaanbaatar.
-In 2019, the 13th Decree of the President of Mongolia on “Promotion of Mongolian Heroic Epics” was issued. According to the decree, the “Golden Torts of Eternity” was performed in the ceremonial hall of the Government House that day. During the Lunar New Year Eve days of 2018 and 2019, it has become a tradition to perform epics at the “Khaan Tuulisiin Urguu (Epic Khan Palace)” and deliver them directly to the public.
-In February 2019, the Government of Mongolia approved Resolution No. 68 on approving the “National Program on Intangible Cultural Heritage”.
-In April 2019, the Minister of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia approved the action plan to implement the “National Program on Intangible Cultural Heritage” by Order A/235. The program is being implemented in 2019-2023.
-The Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences implemented a joint international project “The annotate catalog of traditional motifs of the Mongolian people” (2018-2020) in collaboration with Mongolian-speaking Buryat and Kalmyk scholars in Russia. The joint research project announced by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia and the Foundation for Basic Research of the Russian Federation was approved by the Minister of Education, Culture and Science Order No. A / 332 of 2018.
-In 2018, the anthem “King of Legends, Fierce Jangar” was performed.
-The project “Revitalization of Gobi Khalkh Tuuli” implemented by the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Umnugovi Aimag Governor's Office and the Department of Education, Culture and Arts from March 2019 to January 2021 has been completed.
-In 2019, original source of the “Jangar” epic was republished and distributed.
-In 2019, the epic performer B.Bayarmagnai gave a lecture on the master class "Oral culture melody evening".
-A public poll was conducted to identify the heritage practitioners s of the Mongolian epic with a high level of skill, and in 2019 Baatarjav Erdenetsogt, a well-known Mongolian eppic performer, and Baldandorj Avirmed, in 2020, were awarded the state title of “Honored Cultural Worker of Mongolia”.
-According to the “Procedure for awarding monetary prizes to heritage practitioners who have made a significant contribution to the promotion and dissemination of intangible cultural heritage at the national and global levels” approved by the Government of Mongolia, A.Baldandorj was selected as the best heritage practitioner of 2019, and received a prize of 30 million MNT.
-In 2021, the Law on Cultural Heritage Protection was amended.
-Mongolian epics published by the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences:
-B. Katuu. Depiction of heroes and queens in Mongolian epics.
T.Bayasgalan. Comparative study of variants of “Jangar” epic.
D.Myagmarsuren, A.Alimaa “Jangar and World Epics”
T.Bayasgalan, S.Tsetsenmunkh, H.Gerel. History of the development of Mongolian epic studies.
A.Alimaa, Ch.Zayaasuren, B.Dairiimaa, G.Batmunkh “Mongolian oral wisdom: Umnugovi province”. Editor S. Baigalsaikhan.
1. 2017 “Comprehensive study of JANGAR-Tuuli and its innovation” Total cost - 89 million MNT. (Appendix to the Order No. A \ 247 of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science dated May 30, 2017)
2. “World Epics and Jangar” International Scientific Symposium and Poetry Festival in Ulaanbaatar on September 21-23, 2018. Total cost - 2 million 900 thousand MNT (Annex to Order A\267 of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science, of May 18, 2017)
3. The Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences has implemented an international joint project “The annotate catalog of traditional motifs of the Mongolian people” (2018-2020). The total cost - 15 million MNT.
4. On March 25, 2018, performance of the opera “King of Legends, Fierce Jangar”. 80 million MNT from the state budget.
5. “Revitalization of Gobi Khalkh Tuuli” project implemented from March 2019 to January 2021 in cooperation with the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Umnugovi Province Governor's Office and the Department of Education, Culture and Arts. The total cost, including published books and musical instruments, is $ 60 million.
6. November 18, 2019. Classic source of the “Jangar” epic was published and distributed. Compiled by D.Suriya. Prepared by DAS Twin Foundation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. “Superjobs” LLC, 2019. -294?. ISBN 978-9919-22-407-3. The total cost - 80 million MNT. Of this, 30 million MNT was funded by international organizations and 50 million MNT by NGOs.
7. On June 19, 2019, the epic performer B.Bayarmagnai gave a master class on “Oral Culture Melody Evening”. The budget - 1 million MNT.
8. Cost of Mongolian epics published by the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences:
- B. Katuu. Depiction of heroes and queens in Mongolian epics. Ub., Soyombo printing. 2018. -113?. (Published at the author's own expense)
- T.Bayasgalan. Comparative study of variants of “Jangar” epic. Ed. S. Baigalsaikhan. MAS. IL Soyombo Printing LLC. Ub., 2019. 124 x. (Total cost 1 million 700 thousand MNT)
- D.Myagmarsuren, A.Alimaa “Jangar and World Epics” (Proceedings of the International Conference). Ub., 2019. -312x. The budget - 2 million MNT. (Published at the expense of the conference)
- T.Bayasgalan, S.Tsetsenmunkh, H.Gerel. History of the development of Mongolian epic studies. CHINA. National Press Committee. 2019. -645 ?. The budget - 3 million MNT. (Published at the expense of China)
9. In 2019, the Government of Mongolia awarded the epic performer A.Baldandorj 30 million MNT for his significant contribution to the promotion and dissemination of the Mongolian epic heritage at the national and global levels.
A total 364.600,000 MNT or 121,400 $ was spent for safeguarding measures.
-The total cost of Mongolia's “National Intangible Cultural Heritage Program” is currently unclear, which is directly related to the global epidemic and due to the transition to austerity measures, quarantine, and restrictions on public arts and cultural activities. However, in 2019, the Government of Mongolia awarded A.Baldandorj, a Uriankhai epic performer, with an “Honorary Award” and 30 million MNT for his outstanding contribution to the promotion and dissemination of intangible cultural heritage at the national and global levels.
-The innovation project “Comprehensive study of JANGAR-epic and its innovation” is not included in the 2017 report due to its implementation over the years. The project leader, D. Myagmarsuren, died prematurely, which disrupted some project activities. The aim of the project team was to expand the boundaries of the study area to study the situation and interactions between Mongolia and neighboring Turkic-speaking countries. The “Jangar-2017” international research expedition conducted within the framework of the project was selected as one of the 10 best events in the field of Chinese epics.
-The Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences implemented a joint international project “The annotate catalog of traditional motifs of the Mongolian people” (2018-2020) in collaboration with Mongolian-speaking Buryat and Kalmyk scholars in Russia. The total cost is 15,000.0 million MNT. The project is a direct continuation of the project team's “Fund for Ethno-Poetic Constant Folklore of Mongolian Peoples" project implemented by the in 2017-2018. Now there is a need to create an online database of Mongolian epics for all Mongolian ethnic groups. This is because the Buryats, Kalmyks, and Inner Mongolians, who live under the influence of other languages and cultures, have a tendency to forget their language and perform epics. Mongolian scholars have accumulated a wealth of experience working together on these projects, and a specialized team has already been formed to expand this work.
-On March 25, 2018, the opera “King of Legends Fierce Jangar” was performed. There were no operas, dramas or plays based on the “Jangar” epic in Mongolia, but in 2016, a dance play “Baatar Jangar” with 2 chapters and 6 scenes staged by N.Munguntsetseg, a teacher and choreographer at the School of Dance Arts of the University of Arts and Sciences. Prior to that, in 1983, the Kalmyk writer Basanga Baatar Jangar wrote a play “Heaven Land” with 4 chapters and 9 scenes based on the epic, but it was not published. Therefore, the play was original and the budget was sufficient. There was a lack of budget for a children's play staged at the Zavkhan Music and Drama Theater.
-The “Revitalization of Gobi Khalkh Tuul” project implemented by the Institute of Language and Literature, Umnugovi Province Governor's Office and the Department of Education, Culture and Arts has done many things at a relatively low cost, therefore seems to be possible to localize easily. The province pays a lot of attention to cultural heritage and activities, and 2019 has been declared the Year of Culture of the province. Therefore, it is more effective to safeguard, transmit and develop intangible cultural heritage in places where cultural heritage, practitioners and cultural workers can work together.
-In 2019, the master class “Oral Culture Melody Evening” initiated by the epic performer B.Bayarmagnai developed a curriculum for lectures and lessons for schoolchildren, and it is a fruitful work for one person to teach epic poems to teachers and students. There is a need for projects and financial support for such people. In some parts of Mongolia, the infrastructure is not well developed, and practitioners who perform epics in person are not always able to reach distant regions.
In “VISION-2050” Long-term Development Policy of Mongolia, National Action Plan of Government of Mongolia, Guidelines for Development of Mongolia in 2021-2025, “Guidelines for Improving the Laws and Regulations of Mongolia until 2024,” and Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Culture for 2021-2024 incorporates organizing the activities in the field of identification, registration, studying, creation of a registration database, as well as transmitting, distributing, promoting the intangible cultural heritage and supporting, safeguarding, educating, and identifying its practitioners. They aim to support the transmission of traditional knowledge to future generations and provide a system of support and incentives for groups, communities, and practitioners who have established apprenticeship training. A working group has been established and begun to conduct relevant research, to submit an independent law on “Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage” to the State Great Khural in 2023.
The updated safeguarding plan is in line with the above policy documents. The purpose of the plan is:
To update the “Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian Epic” heritage registration and documentation, transmit it through formal and informal training, study, promote, strengthen viability, raise public awareness, and prepare for the transfer from the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding to the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
The objectives of the updated plan are:
- Carry out a detailed study of the “Mongolian epic” heritage element (Khalkh, Barga, Uzemchin, Torguud ethnic epics)
- organization of apprentice trainings,
- strengthening viability;
- raising public awareness,
- promotion and support of practitioners
- continuation of the registration and documentation.
- Reviving and safeguarding of epics of Khalkh, Barga, Uzemchin and Torguud ethnic groups.
- Public awareness will deepen and the number of people interested in the heritage and researchers will increase.
- The activity and attitude of performers will improve, and their positive impact on society will improve.
- The active participation, and valuable opinions of the public, organizations and individuals in the safeguarding and promotion of Tuuli will be improved.
- Improvement in the cultural environment of the epic will improve cultural tourism and research, and increase the value of epic performers.
- There will be quality competition for activities related to epics in the region.
- There will be progress in Tuuli research works.
- The Government of Mongolia, the Ministry of Culture, the Government Implementing Agency Department of Arts and Culture, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Foundation for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage and other governmental and non-governmental organizations, artists, heritage practitioners, students and researchers increase participation and provide all-round policy, organizational, financial and investment support for the implementation of the revised safeguarding plan.
In order to achieve the target results, the following activities will be organized in 2022-2025:
In the field of registration and documentation:
- Documentation of full repertoire of Mongolian epic performers
- Creation an electronic database of Mongolian epics
In the field of research:
- Establishment of a detailed research group based on ethnic groups on the distribution, repertoire and practitioners of the Mongolian Tuuli and creation of a regional map.
- Based on research, evidence, and heritage practitioners, start the revitalization of 2-4 epics in 2-3 ethnic groups with their participation.
- Publication of scientific research papers
- Establishment of a regional fund to support epic performers by organizing nature-cultural-educational tours along the “Tuuli Road”. Conduct international scientific conferences and local consultations (expand regional relations in order to establish the space of the Mongolian epics, and close to neighboring and linguistically, culturally and ethnically close Buryats, Kalmyks, Inner Mongolians, Tuva, Altai, Khakassia, Yakutia, Kyrgyzstan. Due to the fact that the heroic epics of the Mongolian and Turkic-speaking peoples are of the same ethnicity and branch out from each other, the epic culture is similar in many respects, such as identity, difference, structure, content, ideas, melting methods, culture, safeguarding, education and promotion, it will provide a wide range of opportunities to explore, learn, and safeguard together.
- Organize a local epic performers' consultation meeting.
In the field of advertising:
- Create a cartoon to promote the Mongolian epics to children and youth.
- Organize the “Central Asian Epics” International Festival (Traditionally, the “Central Asian Epics” International Symposium and Festival will be organized in the region under the auspices of the President of Mongolia).
- Announce a competition among artists to create contents based on Mongolian epics and support cultural production, and increase the repertoire of epic performers
- Organize exhibitions and publish compilations of materials on epics archived abroad
- Promote epic performers through a series of programs in the media and on television
- Announce a competition among artists to create content on epics (with the aim of re-introducing the epic heritage element, and repertoire of epics to the general public and ethnic groups, to strengthen beliefs, and to promote)
In the field of training:
- Organize apprenticeship training programs and trainings with three best performers
- Include non-governmental organizations and citizens working in the field of Tuuli in trainings to support and provide methodological support
Support and assistance:
- Solve social problems of epics performers (distinguishing badge)
- To support non-governmental organizations and citizens' associations operating in the field of Tuuli
- In order to support rural performers, to solve and facilitate social issues, to make two documentaries about them and to promote them internationally.
- In 2022-2025, the monitoring of the heritage “Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian Epic” will be done by comparing it with the annual safeguarding and protection activities, especially the quality of apprenticeship and the number of heritage practitioners, the viability of the heritage shall be determined and reflected in future safeguarding measures.
1. Establishment of a detailed research group based on ethnic groups on the distribution, repertoire and practitioners of the Mongolian Tuuli and creation of a regional map in 2022. A total budget 8000$.
2. Based on research, evidence, and heritage practitioners, start the revitalization of 2-4 epics in 2-3 ethnic groups with their participation in 2022-2023. A total budget 7000$.
3. Create a cartoon to promote the Mongolian epic to children and youth in 2022. Budget 3500$.
4. Organize apprenticeship training programs and trainings with three best performers in 2022. Budget 9000$.
5. Include non-governmental organizations and citizens working in the field of Tuuli in trainings to support and provide methodological support in 2022. Budget 2000$.
6. Hold a local epic performers' First consultation meeting in 2023. Budget 8000$.
7. “Organize the “Central Asian Epics” International Festival. 2023. Budget 7000$.
8. Promote epic performers through a series of programs in the media and on television in 2023. Budget 3000$.
9. Establishment of a regional fund to support epic performers by organizing nature-cultural-educational tours along the “Tuuli Road” in 2022-2024. Budget 5000$.
10. Announce a competition among artists to create contents based on Mongolian epics, support cultural industry, and increase the repertoire of epic performers in 2023-2024. Budget 6000$.
11. Create a digital database of the Mongolian epics in 2022-2024. Budget 1900$.
12. Organize exhibitions and publish compilations of materials on epics archived abroad in 2024. Budget 5000$.
13. Publication of scientific research papers in 2024. Budget 5000$.
14. In order to support rural performers, to solve and facilitate social issues, to make two documentaries about them and to promote them internationally in 2025. Budget 5600$.
15. Documentation of the full repertoire of Mongolian epic performers in 2022-2025. Budget 2000$.
16. Solve social issue of epics performers (distinguishing badge) in 2022-2025. Budget 2000$.
17. Monitoring in 2022-2025. Budget 5000$.
The revised safeguarding plan was developed by the Ministry of Culture, the National Center for Cultural Heritage, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Department of Culture and Arts of the Government Implementation Agency, senior and young heritage practitioners, and relevant government officials, including opinions of organizations, scholars, in accordance with the policy documents such as the “Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage”, long-term development policy document of Mongolia VISION -2050, the Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia, the Guidelines for the Development of Mongolia for 2021-2025, the Guidelines for Improving the Legislation of Mongolia until 2024, and the Strategic Plan for 2021-2024 of the Ministry of Culture.
The Ministry of Culture will create a favorable legal environment, formulate policies, allocate and monitor the necessary budgets in the state budget, and provide guidance and methodologies for the implementation of national activities by the Government of Mongolia. The National Center for Cultural Heritage will work with trainers and heritage practitioners in 21 provinces and 9 districts to organize safeguarding activities, as well as national inventory, festivals and academic conferences.
The activities included in the plan shall be organized in consultation and jointly with the organizations, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, researchers and the public whose functions are specified in the Law on Cultural Heritage Protection.
Heritage practitioners are responsible for disseminating, promoting, and transmitting the heritage element and are actively involved in other safeguarding plans.
Research institutes and individual researchers will be involved. NGOs operating abroad will be contacted to search for opportunities to teach epics and conduct student trainings online, to safeguard their knowledge on the native language.
It is important to note that the number of NGOs that allow epic performers to initiate and work in this field is small, and their activities are not regular, even though they are registered in the country.
Artists will be encouraged to work together to promote Mongolian epics, develop content and cultural industries.
Cooperation with foreign researchers, performers and related organizations will be developed.
a. Ministry of Culture, Mongolia
Address: Ministry of Culture of Mongolia, Sukhbaatar district, 7th sub-district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
Director of Cultural Heritage Department
Phone: + 976- 51-265609
Coordination Officer for Policy Implementation of Intangible Cultural Heritage
Phone: + 976- 51-265617
Phone: + 976- 99057308
National Center for Cultural Heritage
Address: Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Khan-Uul district, 21st khoroo, Buyant Ukhaa 2 district,
Director National Cultural Heritage Center
Phone: + 976-99168200
+ 976- 70110877
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Specialist in charge of World Heritage Sites, Department for Protection and Rescue of Cultural Heritage in Emergency Situation in National Center for Cultural Heritage
Phone: + 976- 99030405
Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO
Programme Specialist for Culture
Phone: + 976-70105652
“?ongol Tuuli” NGO
Head: Avirmed BALDANDORJ
Phone: + 976-88908226
In writing this report, we met with experts from the State Language Council under the Office of the President of Mongolia, the Ministry of Culture, the Government Implementing Agency Department of Culture and Arts, the National Center for Cultural Heritage, and other organizations to review legal and related documents, and to make copies.
By the order of the Minister of Culture of Mongolia No. A / 73 of 2021 “On the establishment of a working group”, a working group was established to develop and prepare the “Periodic Report on Cultural Heritage in Need of the Urgent Safeguarding”. These include representatives from the Ministry of Culture, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Government Implementing Agency for Culture and Arts, and the National Center for Cultural Heritage, World Heritage - Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and the surrounding sacred landscape administration office, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO and related researchers. For example, A. Alimaa (the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences), A. Baldandorj (“Mongol Tuul” NGO), A.Badamkhand (Umnugovi province), and the performer Ulzii Batjargal participated in person.
Specialists from 21 provinces and soums of Mongolia, Khovd and Uvs provinces' Music and Drama Theater, and Umnugovi province's Department of Culture and Arts were contacted by telephone. Related reports and materials were submitted by e-mail.
The team met with representatives of two non-governmental and public organizations, "Mongol Tuuli" (headed by A.Baldandorj) and "Das Twin Fund" (headed by S.Narankhuu). Existence of other Tuuli related NGOs inquired.
During the preparation of the report, personal and telephone interviews were made regarding revival of the Khalkha Tuuli, with such heritage practitioners as A.Baldandorj, Bokoonii Bold, and representatives of Khalkha epic performers Batjargal Ulzii, Dashvasamba Jargal, and Myagmarsuren Badamsuren.
Minister of Culture, Mongolia