Eshuva, Harákmbut sung prayers of Peru’s Huachipaire people (traducción en curso)

    

Inscrito en 2011 (6.COM) en la Lista del Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial que requiere medidas urgentes de salvaguardia

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The Huachipaire are an indigenous ethnic group speaking the Harákmbut language and living in Peru’s southern Amazon tropical forest. The Eshuva or sung prayer is an expression of Huachipaire religious myths, performed for healing or as part of traditional ceremonies such as the drinking of masato, a traditional beverage made of fermented manioc, and the initiation of new Eshuva singers. According to oral tradition, the Eshuva songs were learned directly from the forest’s animals, and are sung to summon nature spirits to help to alleviate illness or discomfort or promote well-being. Eshuva songs are performed without musical instruments and sung only in the Harákmbut language. As such they play a key role in safeguarding the language and preserving the group’s values and worldview. Transmission takes place orally, with the singer teaching apprentices the specific function of each song according to the ailment it is meant to heal. Eshuva songs are at the risk of being lost, however, since transmission has been interrupted due to lack of interest on the part of Huachipaire youth, recent internal migration and the influence and assimilation of external cultural elements. At present, there are only twelve known singers among the Huachipaire.

Informe periódico

Report on the status of an element inscribed on the list of intangible cultural heritage in need of urgent safeguarding

A. Cover sheet

A.1.

State Party

Name of State Party

Peru

A.2.

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

This information is available online.

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

2005-09-23

A.3.

Element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List that is the subject of this report

Name of element

Eshuva, Harákmbut sung prayers of Peru’s Huachipaire people

Inscribed in

2011

Submitting State(s)

Peru

A.4.

Reporting period covered by this report

Please indicate the period covered by this report.

Reporting period covered by this report

16-12-2015 - 15-12-2020

A.5.

Other elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, if any

Please list all other elements from your country inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, together with the year of inscription; for multinational elements, please indicate the other States concerned.

A.6.

Executive summary of the report

Please provide an executive summary of the report that will allow general readers to understand the current status of the element, any positive or negative impacts of inscription, the implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period and their possible update for the following years.

Executive summary of the report

Eshuva, Harákmbut sung prayers of Peru’s Huachipaire people (Esuwa, Harakbut sung prayers of Peru’s Wachiperi people), expression of the Wachiperi communities in the province of Paucartambo in Cusco, Peru, consists of the intonation of healing and protection songs. In 2011, there were 7 Wachiperi elders from the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros, who knew the tradition of Esuwa songs.
The Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco implements a Strategy for Cultural and Linguistic Revitalization with the Wachiperi communities for safeguarding the Esuwa songs:
1.- The promotion of language, as a communicative and cultural vehicle, allows the intonation of songs and their transmission. However, in 2015, no child in the Wachiperi community spoke fluently their language. It was started the work of linguistic nests, in which while bearers carry out basic care activities with young children, they speak and sing traditional songs in their language. Also, the creation of linguistic landscapes in their own language, in state entities such as municipalities and educational institutions. Likewise, the Wachiperi encyclopedic and virtual dictionary has been elaborated in a participatory way, for the virtual and bilingual access to the language.
2.- Documentation and rescue of cultural traditions through the participatory elaboration of the Communal Calendar-CC, in which it is inscribed the traditional practices of the Wachiperi people which take place throughout the year, linked to the river and the forest as foundational elements in the culture from which the Esuwa songs are originated. The CC is a key tool in the educational processes of the three community educational institutions. Female and male sages are visited at their homes to share the oral tradition, transmit the cultural practices and describe the use of the songs.
3.- Documentation of the songs used by the Wachiperi, including the Esuwa, collecting from the bearers their meaning, use and intonation. With the authorization of the communities, the tradition of the use of the songs has been collected. The Wachiperi boys and girls have learned to sing Embachiha and Embachinoja songs, which are festive, welcoming and encouraging, as a method of approaching the Esuwa songs.
4.- Strengthening of community capacities, in both Wachiperi communities for the representation of their own interests, achieving the approval of the Municipal Ordinance in which it is determined that there is no discrimination in the district of K'osñipata, neither by origin nor by the use of a language other than Spanish. In addition, the Hiungkiori has been recognized as a sacred site for the Wachiperi culture and heritage of the district. Furthermore, the communities have expressed their desire that the writing of the name of their cultural expression be as follows: Esuwa, Harakbut sung prayers of Peru's Wachiperi people (the community minute expressing this desire is attached), and is henceforth used in this way. The communities have succeeded in having educational institutions hire a Wachiperi-speaking teacher for the revitalization of their language (it is worth noting that there are no more than 3 teachers who speak their language). This strengthening has allowed the articulation of diverse actors: the district and provincial municipalities and other state programs, to obtain better living conditions in the communities themselves. Likewise, the Wachiperi Indigenous Council has been formed, a body that represents the collective interests of both communities, as well as the Safeguarding Committee for the Protection of Esuwa Songs.
5.- Documentation, audiovisual and written, of the Esuwa bearers, portraying their lives and healing experiences. The Wachiperi male and female elders have authorized the documentation of their lives and knowledges, material that will be used in the educational processes.

A.7.

Contact person for correspondence

Provide the name, address and other contact information of the person responsible for correspondence concerning the report.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Ms

Family name

Arteta

Given name

Fiorella

Institution/position

Ministry of Culture

Address

Avenida Javier Prado Este N° 2465 - San Borja
Lima - Peru
CP 15021

Telephone number

+51990335152

E-mail address

farteta@cultura.gob.pe

Other relevant information

B

Ms

B. Status of element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List

Refer to the nomination file or to previous reports, if any, as the basis for reporting on the current status of the element, and report only on relevant changes since the date of inscription on the List or since the previous report. Nomination files, specific timetables and earlier reports, if any, are available at https://ich.unesco.org or from the Secretariat, upon request.

The State Party shall pay special attention to the role of gender and shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report, and is asked to describe how it has done so in point D below.

B.1.

Social and cultural functions

Please explain the social and cultural functions and meanings of the element today, within and for its community, the characteristics of the bearers and practitioners, and any specific roles or categories of persons with special responsibilities towards the element, among others. Attention should be given to any relevant changes related to inscription criterion U.1 (‘the element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention’).

Social and cultural functions

People who are entitled to sing the Esuwa songs are known as Wamanokkaeri, which means sage, healer or shaman. They must have a vocation for healing as well as be recognized as such by the community. Esuwa songs are part of the rich social and cultural heritage of the Wachiperi people. Esuwa songs cannot be understood without the cultural space and language of the Wachiperi.

From ancestral times to the present day, the Wamanokkaeri - Wachiperi Harakbut Healers, with the Esuwa songs invoke the four dimensions of the Wachiperi Amazon cosmovision: "Universe - Kürudn" - , "Forest - Ndumba", "Earth - Wandari and Water - Wëëi; becoming the transmission vehicle of all spaces and allowing the encounter of the individual with himself/herself and his/her natural environment. Therefore the Esuwa songs are present in the Wachiperi faith, prayers, healings and ritual practices.

The Esuwa songs are sung in the Wachiperi - Harakbut language and have an almost secret character between the Esuwa sage and the sick person. They invoke the spirits of nature, plants and animals, for the cure of physical and mental illnesses. They are performed according to the state of the patient, as well as the dialogues established by the traditional sages in the typical rituals of this practice.

The Esuwa songs have a connection with the spiritual or psychomagical world as they call it today. Each sage bearer of the Esuwa has to carry out his or her own office of invocation.
The Wachiperi communities assume the Esuwa songs as part of their original and foundational traditions because they establish the closest and most intimate relationship with the elements of nature. However, the transmission is limited to the spaces of direct use of the songs and this situation makes it difficult.

The master sages of the Esuwa, like the native Pepe Solisonquehua, of the community of Santa Rosa de Huacaria, are elderly bearers not only of the wisdom contained in the intonation of the songs but also of the history and original myths of the Wachiperi, as the survivors of the end of the world. All male and female bearers of the Esuwa are respected people within the communities as they are living libraries of their culture and history.

B.2.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

Please describe the current level of viability of the element, particularly the frequency and extent of its practice, the strength of traditional modes of transmission, the demographics of practitioners and audiences and its sustainability. Please also identify and describe the threats, if any, to the element's continued transmission and enactment and describe the severity and immediacy of such threats, giving particular attention to any strengthening or weakening of the element’s viability subsequent to inscription.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

Esuwa songs are often performed among the elders and sages of the Wachiperi Harakbut population when a sick person is physically present. While currently there are just under ten Wachiperi bearers who sing Esuwa songs, they hope that the new generation may learn their original language and be able to sing the sacred songs, so that the spirits of nature will once again be integrated into the bodies through singing.

Traditionally, the transmission of Esuwa songs is done orally, and there are specialists recognized by the Wachiperi - Harakbut groups. Currently, there is a drastic decrease in the number of Esuwa song bearers.

Currently, there is contact with nine sages and leaders who know the Esuwa songs and maintain in force this expression of the Wachiperi Harakbut culture. They live in the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi, of the district of K'osñipata, province of Paucartambo, Cusco region. They are:
• Sergio Pacheco Hambeo.
• Manuel Solisonquehua Yambeo.
• Pepe Solisonquehua Huarohuaro.
• Manuela Ramos Sosa.
• Melchor Ramos Vitente.
• Cesar Colon Huareto.
• Alberto Manqueriapa Vitente.
• Victor Dariquebe Jerehua.
• Julián Dariquebe Jerehua.

Risks threatening the transmission of the Esuwa songs:
The transmission of the Esuwa songs is primarily based on the ability to learn, recreate and use the songs; that is to say, to refer to the collective memory. The threats and risks to this collective memory can be summarized in the following aspects:

• The decline of Wachiperi Harakbut population:
As a consequence of more than one hundred years of incursions into their territories and of bloody aggressions, the main bearers of this expression, the Wachiperi, are currently highly vulnerable, due to the strong influence of colonists in their territories.

• The scarce practice and transmission of the Esuwa.
While in the past the singing of the Esuwa was a widespread practice, it has now become a very reduced identity practice, mainly due to foreign cultural subjugation, to the presence of discrimination, being at risk of disappearing.

As a result of cultural contact with communities from other places, Esuwa songs are sometimes satirized and ridiculed, by considering them as simple beliefs. This leads to the disorganization of the ecological and economic base and the social structure of the Wachiperi. This has had an inhibiting effect on transmission by causing retraction not only of Esuwa songs but also of other practices and the Wachiperi language.
For these reasons, among others, the transmission of the Esuwa has been losing space in the community traditions and in the interest of new generations.

The viability of the Esuwa songs is related to the strengthening of the use of the Wachiperi language, so the promotion and diffusion has been extended from diverse actions. Knowing that the transmission of the songs is diminished, it is fundamental to document the knowledge (characteristics, uses, contained cosmovision), the life of the male and female bearers (their experiences of healing, how they learned the songs, how they sing them, etc.).

B.3.

Implementation of safeguarding measures

Please report on the safeguarding measures described in the nomination file, and previous report, if any. Describe how they have been implemented and how they have substantially contributed to the safeguarding of the element during the reporting period, taking note of external or internal constraints such as limited resources. Include, in particular, information on the measures taken to ensure the viability of the element by enabling the community to continue to practise and transmit it. Include the following detailed information concerning the implementation of the set of safeguarding measures or safeguarding plan:

B.3.a.

Objectives and results

Indicate what primary objective(s) were addressed and what concrete results were attained during the reporting period.

Objectives and results

The actions deployed are inscribed in the Safeguarding Plan formulated in a participatory way with the Wachiperi communities. Based on this plan, objectives have been defined and the following results have been obtained:

Objective 1. Participatory registration, identification and documentation of the cultural manifestations and traditions of the Wachiperi people:
Results:
- Pedagogical and educational use of the audios, videos and printed materials produced in a participatory way with the Wachiperi communities, in 3 educational institutions with 40 students and in both communities.
- Dissemination of the produced material in various media.

Objective 2. Articulation of local actors linked to the Wachiperi cultural expressions for contributing to their safeguarding.
Results:
- Approval of the Municipal Ordinance N° 010-2019/MDK/P that declares as Cultural Heritage representative of the district of K´osñipata the site where the Hingkiori stone lies as part of the Wachiperi people’s cosmovision.
- Health care of households of both communities, detecting primary health care cases.
- Articulation with state social programs for a comprehensive care of households of both communities, with special care to the bearers of the Esuwa songs.
- 12 teachers trained for incorporating elements of the culture as part of the educational processes.

Objective 3. Dissemination and use of the Wachiperi language.
Results:
- 80 community members have participated in the elaboration of signage in the Wachiperi language and the WACHIPERI BILINGUAL AND VIRTUAL ENCYCLOPEDICAL DICTIONARY as strategies for positioning the language.
- 5000 people have been informed and made aware of the cultural richness of the Esuwa songs and the Wachiperi communities from open and massive spaces.

Objective 4. Strengthening of capacities of Wachiperi communities.
Results:
- Consolidation of the Wachiperi Indigenous Council (COINWA) as a space for representing the interests of their culture, rights and territories, by forming part the Native Federation of the Madre de Dios River and Tributaries as a representative of the interests of the Harakbut people.
- 95 community members have elaborated participatorily the two Community Life Plans which will serve as a management instrument.
- 07 Wachiperi male and female sages have participated in the educational processes at primary school level sharing their knowledges, songs and traditions with 41 children.

B.3.b.

Safeguarding activities

List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.

Safeguarding activities

The actions deployed as part of the Safeguarding Plan formulated participatorily with the Wachiperi communities, are framed within the defined objectives:

Objective 1. Participatory registration, identification and documentation of the cultural manifestations and traditions of the Wachiperi people:
- Registry, in audio and in writing, (Spanish translation) of the Embachiha and Embachinoha songs in both Wachiperi communities, their meanings and uses, as part of the Wachiperi tradition that uses songs as part of their customs.
- Production of audiovisual material showing the Wachiperi world, traditions, dimensions of the world and sacred places.
- Participatory elaboration of the Wachiperi Community Calendar, showing the diverse moments of the community life according to their cosmovision, as a pedagogical tool.
- Recording and registry on video and in writing respectively, of the experiences of the male and female bearers of the Esuwa tradition, as educational material, for language positioning and dissemination.
- Registration of documentary photography of the ways of life of the Wachiperi communities, documenting the daily life of the inhabitants.
- Information gathering of the Wachiperi communities as members of the indigenous peoples.

Objective 2. Articulation of local actors linked to the Wachiperi cultural expressions for contributing to their safeguarding.
- Participatory writing of signage in Wachiperi language for municipal offices and educational institutions.
- Two registration campaigns at the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status - RENIEC-, reaching 17 people.
- A health campaign in both communities, reaching 201 people (adults and minors) in comprehensive and family medicine, affiliating 26 people to the Comprehensive Health Insurance.
- Articulation with the Regional Directorate of Foreign Trade and Tourism - DIRCETUR- for the promotion of cultural products in benefit of female and male artisans.
- Strengthening of capacities aimed at male and female teachers of the educational institutions of the Wachiperi communities for incorporating cultural elements in the educational processes.

Objective 3. Disemmination and use of the Wachiperi language.
- Participatory formulation of Wachiperi signage in municipal offices and educational institutions.
- Participatory formulation of the ENCYCLOPEDICAL AND VIRTUAL BILINGUAL DICTIONARY of the Wachiperi language with the engagement of 80 community members.
- Permanent exhibitions in the editions of the Book Fair in Cusco, since 2015 to date, of the teaching of the Wachiperi language and showing the traditions of their culture, including the photographic exhibition "ORONDA HÖHEÏ" (It is us) with photographs taken by the own members of the communities.
- Realization of intercultural concerts (4 editions) in which Wachiperi songs were performed together with the Cusco Symphony Orchestra, with a massive participation of the public.
- Participation of representatives of the bearers of Esuwa songs and communities in the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington D.C. (2015), holding a discussion on Esuwa songs, focusing on their therapeutic use and cultural affirmation.
- Realization of annual meetings of the Wachiperi Culture in which traditions, knowledges and songs are celebrated and displayed, with the participation of all the children of both communities.

Objective 4. Strengthening of capacities of the Wachiperi communities.
- The Wachiperi Indigenous Council (COINWA) has been formed to represent the interests of their culture, rights and territories.
- Integration of COINWA into the Native Federation of Madre de Dios River and Tributaries as a representative of the interests of the Harakbut people.
- Carrying out of workshops for the participatory elaboration of the Community Life Plans as a management tool.
- Constitution of the Safeguarding Management Committee, formed by the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros, a body that performs joint actions with the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- Expansion and equipment of two (02) Houses of Memory in the Communities (as an initiative of public investment) of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros as spaces of revitalization, realization of ceremonies, songs and cultural exchange.
- Creation of spaces for coexistence and sharing with male and female sages of both communities driven by the Educational Institutions, counting with 41 students in total.

On the other hand, in the recent context of the health emergency caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, softening mechanisms were implemented to mitigate the economic effects on the culture sector, which were approved through the Urgent Decree No. 058-2020-MC of May 20, 2020. The objective of these mechanisms was to provide economic support to individuals linked to the cultural and arts industries as well as to the intangible cultural heritage. In the case of mechanisms related to intangible cultural heritage, these are aimed at groups of bearers of expressions of intangible cultural heritage with the aim of safeguarding the processes of creation, identification, research and transmission as well as contributing to its dissemination, promotion and conservation in virtual platforms.

In this regard, seven groups of bearers of the Wachiperi ethnic group obtained economic support to develop small projects related to oral tradition and rituality, traditional cuisine, as well as crafts linked to the use of seeds and the transformation of vegetable fiber. It is important to note that most of these collectives are made up of male and female sages from the communities, which shows their interest and commitment in the implementation of the projects.

B.3.c.

Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

Describe how communities, groups or, if appropriate, individuals as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have effectively participated, including in terms of gender roles, in the safeguarding measures. Describe the role of the implementing organization or body (name, background, etc.) and the human resources that were available for implementing safeguarding activities.

Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

The Wachiperi native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi, the Wachiperi Indigenous Council - COINWA, the Native Federation of the Madre de Dios River and Tributaries- FENAMAD, the District Municipality of K'osñipata and the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, have been carrying out joint actions for the Safeguarding of the Esuwa Wachiperi Harakbut songs, for which working groups have been formed:

Safeguarding Committee.-
Committee composed by Wachiperi leaders: Alberto Manqueriapa Vitente, Sergio Pacheco Hambeo, Julián Dariquebe Jerehua, Víctor Dariquebe Jerehua and José Antonio Dumas Ramos from the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi, respectively. They are the ones who own, disseminate, lead and have large knowledge of the importance and symbology of the Esuwa Wachiperi - Harakbut Songs and have the endorsement of the native communities, COINWA and FENAMAD.

Wachiperi Native Communities.-
The Wachiperi native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi are the owners of this element that seek to strengthen and transfer their cultural expressions and strengthen their cultural identity. The communities led by the chiefs and community directive members are the ones who best know their culture and propose actions to safeguard the songs. Their role is to facilitate and articulate the safeguarding process and support the COINWA organization.

Wachiperi Indigenous Council.- COINWA
It is the new organization of the Wachiperi culture affiliated to the Native Federation of the Madre de Dios River and Tributaries – FENAMAD, organization that aims to oversee for the political, economic, social and cultural rights of the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi to exercise their intercultural citizenship.

District Municipality of K´osñipata
The Municipality, as local government, participates actively in safeguarding the Esuwa Songs. For this, the implementation of the Safeguarding Plan of such cultural expression has been integrated into the Agreed Development Plan of the District of K´osñipata 2018 -2024.

Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco – DDC Cusco - Ministry of Culture
It is the ruling entity in culture matters, and is responsible for formulating, coordinating and implementing policies aimed at the dissemination and promotion of tangible and intangible cultural heritage.
In relation to the Safeguarding activities, the DDC – Cusco assigns resources for the implementation of participatory workshops and the Wachiperi cultural and linguistic revitalization.
It carries out inter-institutional coordination for the implementation of social services with adequate cultural relevance, in favor of the native Wachiperi communities.
It promotes meetings and activities within the framework of cultural expression, with the aim of promoting and disseminating the ancestral knowledges of the Wachiperi people.

B.3.d.

Timetable

Indicate in a timetable when each activity was implemented.

Timetable

Below, it is reported the calendar of activities carried out from 2016 to 2019 in charge of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco:

- 2016 - 2017: Participation of male and female sages with Educational Institutions.
- 2016 - 2018: Documentation of the Esuwa, Embachiha and Embachinoha songs, with the male and female bearers and specialists.
- 2016 - 2019: Exposition of knowledges and teaching of the Wachiperi language in the annual editions of the International Book Fair in Cusco, with the participation of Wachiperi speaking populations, singers and sages.
- 2016 - 2019: Intercultural Symphony Concert. Every year, 6 Wachiperi singers participate with their songs in a concert with the Cusco Symphony Orchestra. The Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco assigns budget for these activities.
-2016 - 2019: Audio, video and photo recording and registry. Documentation of the life of the communities and their sages.
- 2016 - 2019: Wachiperi Culture Encounters. With the participation of both communities and educational institutions.
- 2016 - 2019: Working meetings with Community Chiefs and technical assistance.
- 2017 - 2018: Ilustrative and descriptive Wachiperi Communal Calendar. With the participation of the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi, it has been possible to represent the productive life and seasonal cycle of the Wachiperi people.
- 2017 - 2018: Formulation of the Wachiperi Culture Life Plan, with the participation of the communities and specialists.
- 2017 - 2018: Participatory formulation of the signage in Wachiperi language.
- 2017 - 2019: Strengthening of teaching capacities for articulating education and culture. The Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco allocates funds for this activity.
- 2018 - 2019: Elaboration and launching of the virtual dictionary, carrying out a series of workshops with the Wachiperi speaking population and participation of specialists.
- 2016 - 2019: It is important to note that the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco assigns two professionals, under the modality of Services Administrative Hiring, who permanently carry out actions in both communities.
- 2020: Development of 7 projects for traditional expressions of the Wachiperi people through the Urgent Decree 058-2020-MC.

B.3.e.

Budget expenditures

Provide the detailed amounts of the funds used for the implementation of each activity (if possible, in US dollars), identifying the funding source for each (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

Budget

Following, it is reported the budgetary expenditure of the activities in charge of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco carried out from 2016 to 2019:

- USD 4,600 annually. Years 2016 - 2017: Participation of male and female Sages with Educational Institutions.
- USD 7,600 annually. Years 2016 - 2018: Documentation of the Esuwa, Embachiha and Embachinoha Songs, counting with male and female bearers and specialists.
- USD 4,600 annually. Years 2016 - 2019: Exposition of knowledges and teaching of the Wachiperi language in the annual editions of the International Book Fair in Cusco, with the participation of Wachiperi speaking population, singers and sages.
- USD 4,400 annually. Years 2016 - 2019: Intercultural Symphony Concert. Every year, 6 Wachiperi singers participate with their songs in a concert with the Cusco Symphony Orchestra. The Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco assigns budget for these activities.
- USD 22,750 annually. Years 2016 - 2019: Audio, video and photo recording and registry. Documentation of the life of the communities and their sages.
- USD 4,600 annually. Years 2016 - 2019: Wachiperi Culture Encounters. With the participation of both communities and educational institutions.
- USD 4,600 annually. Years 2016 - 2019: Working meetings with Community Chiefs and technical assistance.
- USD 6,000 annually. Years 2017 - 2018: Ilustrative and descriptive Wachiperi Communal Calendar. With the participation of the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi, it has been possible to represent the productive life and seasonal cycle of the Wachiperi people.
- USD 4,600 annually. Years 2017 - 2018: Formulation of the Wachiperi Culture Life Plan, with the participation of the communities and specialists.
- USD 4,600 annually. Years 2017 - 2018: Participatory formulation of the signage in Wachiperi.
- USD 4,600 annually. Years 2017 - 2019: Strengthening of teaching capacities for articulating education and culture. The Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco allocates funds for this activity.
- USD 16,600 annually. Years 2018 - 2019: Elaboration and launching of the virtual dictionary, carrying out a series of workshops with the Wachiperi speaking population and participation of specialists.
- USD 12,200 annually. Years 2016 - 2019: It is important to note that the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco assigns two professionals, under the modality of Services Administrative Hiring, who permanently carry out actions in both communities.
- USD 11,000. Year 2020: invested in 7 small safeguarding projects corresponding to the Urgent Decree 058-2020.

B.3.f.

Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

Provide an overall assessment of the effectiveness of the activities undertaken to achieve the expected results and of the efficiency of the use of funds for implementing the activities. Please indicate how the activities contributed to achieving the results and whether other activities could have contributed better to achieving the same results. Also indicate whether the same results could have been achieved with less funding, whether the human resources available were appropriate and whether communities, groups and individuals could have been better involved.

Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

Safeguarding actions undertaken:
- Transmission Workshops of the Esuwa Songs, Myth of Wanamey from Sages to Wachiperi Leaders and Children: The transmission has been intergenerational, which implied knowing widely the real dimension of the Wachiperi Harakbut Amazon Cosmovision.
- Ethnographic Research and Audio Recording of the Esuwa Wachiperi Songs: There is a registry and inventory of the Wachiperi, Embachiha, Embachinoha, Embaha and Esuwa songs.
- Update of the Safeguarding Plan for the Esuwa Songs. It has been important for strategic programs for the Safeguarding of the Songs and the rescue of the Wachiperi Harakbut language.
- Documentary film registry of the Esuwa, Embachiha and Embachinoha Songs, counting with the participation of male and female bearers and specialists: It is effective for their promotion and dissemination at local, regional, national and international levels.
- Intercultural Symphony Concert. Every year 6 Wachiperi singers participate with their songs in a concert with the Cusco Symphony Orchestra, organized by the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- Photographic registry of the Wachiperi culture: Documenting the life of the communities and their male and female sages, for the national registry of the Native Indigenous peoples of Peru.
- Encounters of the Wachiperi Culture: It is important the participation of both communities with the authorities of the government institutions.
- Illustrative and descriptive Wachiperi Community Calendar. With the engagement of the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi, it has been possible to represent the productive life and seasonal cycle of the Wachiperi people, for its teaching in the educational institutions and benefitting boys and girls of the educational institutions of both communities.
- Formulation of the Wachiperi Culture Life Plan: It has been possible to identify the comprehensive problems of the Wachiperi communities, Vision, Mission and Strategic Guidelines for the economic, social and cultural well-being of the communities.
- Participatory formulation of signage in Wachiperi: The Wachiperi language is made visible and is used in public institutions.
- Strengthening of teaching capacities for articulating education and culture. It is effective for providing a culturally relevant education for the benefit of the boys and girls at school.

In general, all the actions related to the Esuwa songs have had a progressive stage that arises from working workshops in an articulated way among sages, leaders, the Wachiperi Indigenous Council - COINWA, the District Municipality of K'osñipata, the Native Federation of the Madre de Dios River and Tributaries - FENAMAD and the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco - Ministry of Culture.

The effectiveness of the activities that have been carried out since 2016 is reflected in the results shown above, and in the good relationship that the DDC- Cusco has with the social actors that are directly related to the cultural manifestation. From the budgetary point of view, while it is true that the CDD-Cusco allocates funds for activities, it seems that this is not enough, which is why the CDD-Cusco also resort to inter-institutional coordination to join forces.

The songs and the Wachiperi language are a fundamental part and the foundation of the culture; the songs express the essence of the Wachiperi Amazonian cosmovision. Those who live in a common space that is the community, along with the forest, keep their traditional medicine alive.

C

Arteta

C. Update of the safeguarding measures

C.1.

Updated safeguarding plan

Please provide an update of the safeguarding plan included in the nomination file or in the previous report. In particular provide detailed information as follows:

  1. a. What primary objective(s) will be addressed and what concrete results will be expected?
  2. b. What are the key activities to be carried out in order to achieve these expected results? Describe the activities in detail and in their best sequence, addressing their feasibility.
  3. c. How will the State(s) Party(ies) concerned support the implementation of the updated safeguarding plan?

Updated safeguarding plan

Following, it is presented the strategic axes for the safeguarding process of the Esuwa Wachiperi Harakbut Songs.

1.- Strategic Axis: Promotion, Transmission, Learning and Practice of the Esuwa Songs.
Objective 1: Strengthen processes of transmission and dissemination of the Esuwa songs and Wachiperi oral literature for strengtheing the collective oral memory.
Activity.- Transmission, revitalization of the Esuwa Songs for their safeguarding.

Objective 2:
• Conduct and systematize registries and inventories of the Wachiperi cultural manifestations.
Activity.-
• Registry and inventory of tangible and intangible cultural heritage of the Wachiperi culture.
• Learning and playing with the Wachiperi sages at the cultural Nests.

The execution of this activity will be carried out with an active participation of Sages and leaders of the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi, with the technical assistance of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco – Ministry of Culture, which will hire professional staff for safeguarding actions.

2.- Strategic Axis: Wachiperi Identity and Oral Memory.-
Objective 1:
Revitalize the uses of the Wachiperi language, through musical tradition, myths, legends and ancestral values as a communicational strategy of the Wachiperi–Harakbut culture.
Activity:
Intergenerational transmission of the Wachiperi mother tongue for boys and girls in the communities..

Objective 2:
Publish educational material with cultural relevance aimed at Wachiperi boys and girls in institutionalized and non-institutionalized spaces in the communities.
Activity.-
Implementation and execution of the programs for Bilingual Intercultural Education – EIB for Wachiperi boys and girls.

The execution of this activity will be carried out with active participation of Sages and leaders of the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi, by the execution of the Bilingual Intercultural Educational Programs – EIB of the Paucartambo Local Educational Management Unit – UGEL, which will hire Wachiperi bilingual teaching staff for safeguarding actions.

3.- Strategic Axis: Promotion of living spaces for Esuwa Songs.
Objective 1:
Generate encounters and spaces for the implementation of the Wachiperi houses of memory as a strategy for Wachiperi cultural safeguarding and revitalization.
Activity:
Implementation and Improvement of 02 Houses of Memory – Maloca, native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi – Harakbut – IOARR- 2020.

The Safeguarding Plan of the Esuwa Songs and Wachiperi language is being worked jointly with the sages and leaders of the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros and the Wachiperi Indigenous Council - COINWA, with the accompaniment of the District Municipality of K´osñipata, the Native Federation of the Madre de Dios River and Tributaries – FENAMAD and the Paucartambo Local Educational Management Unit – UGEL, of the Ministry of Education, the Identity Restoration and Social Support Management Area – GRIAS of RENIEC, the Northern Health Network of Cusco and the National Service for Natural Protected Areas - SERNAMP.

C.2.

Timetable for future actitivies

Provide a timetable for the updated safeguarding plan (within a time-frame of approximately four years).

Timetable

The Wachiperi native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros, in alliance with the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, have a strong commitment for the safeguarding of the Esuwa Songs, by the execution and tasks of activities such as:

• Year 2020-2021: Activity of Investment, Optimization and Expansion of Fundraised Resources, for the Improvement and implementation of the Malocas Houses of Memory in the Native Community of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi of the district of K´osñipata, province of Paucartambo, region of Cusco, in agreement with the community and the Ministry of Culture, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, Sub Directorate of Interculturality.

• Years 2020-2021: Transmission of the Wachiperi Esuwa Songs of sages to Wachiperi male and female leaders in Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi.

• Years 2020-2021: Transmission of the Wachiperi language at the educational institutions of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi.

• Year 2020-2021: Configuration of Cultural Nests for the transmission of ancestral knowledges of the Wachiperi culture, Esuwa Songs, Transmision of Wachiperi oral literature, with the engagement of Wachiperi male and female sages , in coordination with professionals and allied technicians of the Ministry of Culture, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, Sub Directorate of Interculturality, of the Area of Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

• Year 2020-2021: Research of Wachiperi Traditional Medicine, with active engagement of Wachiperi male and female sages, in coordination with professionals and allied technicians of the Ministry of Culture, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, Sub Directorate of Interculturality, of the Area of Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

• Year 2020-2021: Completion and Publication of the Wachiperi Virtual Dictionary.

• Year 2020-2021: Continued training and recognition of Wachiperi translators and interpreters by the Ministry of Culture.

• Year 2020-2021: Multisectoral campaigns with state institutions implementing the Strategies of Social Action with Sustainability - EASS.

• Year 2020-2021: The name change process will be followed with respect to the Esuwa Songs of the Wachiperi Culture, which was presented through a minute.

• Years 2022 and 2023.- Incorporation of the Esuwa songs as public policy in intercultural health, in a public health facility in the district of K'osñipata, province of Paucartambo.

C.3.

Budget for future activities

Provide the estimates of the funds required for implementing the updated safeguarding plan (if possible, in US dollars), identifying any available resources (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

Budget

• Cost USD 130,000. Year 2020-2021: Activity for Investment, Optimization and Expansion of Fundraised Resources, for the Improvement and Implementation of the Malocas Houses of Memory in the Native Community of Santa Rosa de Huacaria, district of K´osñipata, province of Paucartambo, region of Cusco, in agreement with the community and the Ministry of Culture, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, Sub Directorate of Interculturality.

.• Cost USD 130,000. Year 2020-2021: Activity for Investment, Optimization and Expansion of Fundraised Resources, for the Improvement and Implementation of the Malocas Houses of Memory in the Native Community of Queros Wachiperi, district of K´osñipata, province of Paucartambo, region of Cusco, in agreement with the community and the Ministry of Culture, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, Sub Directorate of Interculturality.

• Cost USD 3,000. Year 2020-2021: Transmission of the Wachiperi Esuwa Songs from sages to Wachiperi male and female leaders in Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi.

• Cost USD 3,000. Year 2020-2021: Transmission of the Wachiperi language at the educational institutions of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi.

• Cost USD 2,000. Year 2020-2021: Configuration of Cultural Nests for transmission of ancestral knowledges of the Wachiperi culture and Esuwa songs, trasmission of Wachiperi oral literature, with the engagement of the Wachiperi male and female sages, in coordination with the professionals and allied technicians of the Ministry of Culture, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, Sub Directorate of Interculturality, of the Area of Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

• Cost USD 1,000. Year 2020-2021: Research of Wachiperi Traditional Medicine, with the active engagement of Wachiperi male and female sages, in coordination with professionals and allied technicians of the Ministry of Culture, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, Sub Directorate of Interculturality, of the Area of Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

• Cost USD 10,000. Year 2020-2021: Completion and Publication of the Wachiperi Virtual Dictionary.

• Cost USD 1,000. Year 2020-2021: Training and recognition to Wachiperi translators and interpreters by the Ministry of Culture.

• Cost USD 10,000. Year 2021. Registry and Inventory of cultural expressions of the Wachiperi-Harakbut people.

• Cost USD 2,000. Years 2022 ans 2023: Incorporation of the Esuwa Songs as public policy in intercultural health, in a public health establishment of the district of K´osñipata, province of Paucartambo.

C.4.

Community participation

Please describe how communities, groups and individuals, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have been involved, including in terms of gender roles, in updating the safeguarding plan, and how they will be involved in its implementation.

00173

Community participation

The updating of the Esuwa Songs Safeguarding Plan was based on a participatory methodology of the Wachiperi sages, which purpose was to collect suggestions, opinions, concerns and expectations of the Wachiperi sages and leaders, who represented the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi, of the Wachiperi Indigenous Council - COINWA,of the Educational Institutions and the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco and other public institutions, which were linked to this process.

It is worth mentioning that one aspect that stands out among the convened sages is the recognition of the importance of safeguarding the Esuwa songs, linking it to the joint rescue of the native Wachiperi language, at the level of the family nucleus and educational institutions of both communities. Following, it was necessary to advance actions for the revitalization of the still existing Esuwa songs and ensure their safeguarding.

The process of organization, implementation and structuring of the methodological strategy was carried out with the working team and the Safeguarding Committee of the Esuwa Songs, and the COINWA, in close and ongoing coordination with the facilitators and technical partners of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco – DDC-C, Sub-Directorate of Interculturality, Area of Rights of Indigenous Peoples. This way, our cultural entity has assumed its commitment for safeguarding Esuwa songs.

C.5.

Institutional context

Please report on the institutional context for the local management and safeguarding of the element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, including:

  1. a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
  2. b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding.

2005-09-23

Institutional context

In accordance with the Esuwa Songs Safeguarding Plan, it is programmed the fulfillment of commitments assumed by the different direct and indirect social actors for cultural manifestation.

The Indigenous Organizations within the frame of Esuwa Songs, which aim is their safeguarding and that are directly involved are:
• Native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros Wachiperi of the district of Kosñipata.
• Safeguarding Committee, formed by Esuwa sage bearers.
• Wachiperi Indigenous Council – COINWA, which joins the Wachiperi native communities.
• Native Federation of the Madre de Dios River and Tributaries – FENAMAD, that fosters the involved Wachiperi native communities.
• Sub-Directorate of Interculturality, of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, articulating and joining shared efforts for safeguarding the Wachiperi–Harakbut Esuwa Songs.

D

Fiorella

D. Participation of communities in preparing this report

Describe the measures taken to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report.

Participation of communities in preparing this report

The elaboration of this report was made in 3 working workshops comprising: 01 in the native community of Santa Rosa de Huacaria, 01 in the community of Queros Wachiperi and 01 joint workshop in the small town of Pilcopata, capital of the district of K'osñipata, province of Paucartambo, with the active engagement of Esuwa sages, Wachiperi leaders, as well as with the participation, accompaniment, facilitation and alliance of the professionals of the Ministry of Culture of Cusco.

The community leaders are those who know their culture best and are the ones who have best directed the safeguarding proposals and actions with the institutions and entitled fully to the Safeguarding Committee and the Wachiperi Indigenous Council - COINWA, in coordination with the sages and leaders, to ensure the process of the plan and in the fulfillment of the final products of evaluation and follow-up.

In the visits carried out for film registry of the Esuwa songs, it was possible to evidence healing acts for a sick Matsigenka, by invocating to the forces of nature by the Esuwa songs. To this regard, it is intended that the new Wachiperi generations and the public institutions existing in the district of K'osñipata may know the real benefits of the songs and the ancestral traditions of thousands of years of the Wachiperi – Harakbut culture.

Finally, it has been noted in the working meetings the strong desire to revitalize the rich cultural heritage of the Wachiperi people, they also have a feeling of little support from the State and private institutions operating in the district in this process of revitalization.

E

Ministry of Culture

E. Signature on behalf of the State Party

The report should be signed by an official empowered to do so on behalf of the State, and should include his or her name, title and the date of submission.

Name

Mr. Alejandro Arturo Neyra Sánchez

Title

Minister of Culture

Date

10-12-2020

Signature

Upload signed version in PDF

Report on the status of an element inscribed on the list of intangible cultural heritage in need of urgent safeguarding

Cover sheet

State Party

Name of State Party

Peru

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

This information is available online.

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

2005-09-23

Element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List that is the subject of this report

Name of element

Eshuva, Harákmbut sung prayers of Peru’s Huachipaire people

Inscribed in

2011

Reporting period covered by this report

Please indicate the period covered by this report.

Reporting period covered by this report

2011 - 2015

Other elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, if any

Please list all other elements from your country inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, together with the year of inscription; for multinational elements, please indicate the other States concerned.

Executive summary of the report

Please provide an executive summary of the report that will allow general readers to understand the current status of the element, any positive or negative impacts of inscription, the implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period and their possible update for the following years.

Executive summary of the report

The Eshuva, Harákmbut sung prayers of the Huachipaire ethnic group are a traditional expression native to the Paucartambo province in Cusco, Peru. They consist of the singing of songs related to healing and the achievement of goals.
The Huachipaire culture has preserved over time a close relationship with its natural environment and regards the forest as the origin of life; for the Huachipaire people, the Eshuva sung prayers are a vital element of their identity because they feed on the energy of nature that is transmitted to the human beings.
In 2011, the Eshuva sung prayers were added to the list of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. The following are among the main positive aspects of this inscription:
• It has allowed the participation of different federal agencies and levels, including the Ministry of Culture, the Regional Government, the District Municipality and Province Municipality alongside the native communities of Queros and Santa Rosa de Huacaria with the goal of safeguarding the Eshuva sung prayers as well as the entire Huachipaire culture.
• It has supported the social cohesion, self-esteem and identity of the Huachipaire people, which has generated the creation of representative organizations such as the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding and the Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association.
• It has allowed the identification of new cultural elements representative of the Huachipaire culture such as the Embachiha and Embachinoha songs.
• It has allowed the identification of safeguarding measures that seek securing the process of revitalization and intergenerational transmission of the Huachipaire culture and the Eshuva sung prayers.
Following the inscription on the list of Urgent Safeguarding, diverse actions have been developed for the safeguarding of the Eshuva sung prayers. The plan of action focused on considering these songs as an important element within the Huachipaire cultural universe and as a fundamental expression of the relationship that the communities have with their natural environment.
Seeing the Huachipaire culture as a complex system fostered actions on different elements of the culture that support the Eshuva such as the revitalization of their language, the creation of spaces of intergenerational transmission and interaction, and the dissemination and promotion of the Huachipaire culture at a local and at an international level.
The actions undertaken began with the constitution of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding that is comprised by residents of the two native communities, this committee has promoted the registration of cultural elements such as the Eshuva sung prayers and the Embachiha and Embachinoha songs, which are also a part of the Huachipaire oral tradition, with the intention of preserving them over time.
Additionally, the building of the “Casas de la Memoria” (House of Memory) was a major effort of the communities and the Ministry of Culture that is connected to the need for a physical space for meetings, ceremonies and promotion of the local cultural expressions.
The educational institutions that were able to involve girls and boys within the intercultural dialogue are important agents for the intergenerational transmission of the oral tradition. Along the same lines, the creation of the dictionary Huachipaire-Spanish has allowed the definition of the writing of Huachiperi words based on the actors’ agreement.
At the same time, the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, has guided the strengthening of the community organizations on the affirmation of their culture in diverse spaces, and it has contributed to their administration, not only related to their knowledge but also to the vision of their future.

Contact person for correspondence

Provide the name, address and other contact information of the person responsible for correspondence concerning the report.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Mr

Family name

Nieto Montesinos

Given name

Jorge

Institution/position

Ministry of Culture of Peru

Address

Avenida Javier Prado este 2465 San Borja
Lima 41

Telephone number

511 476 9933

Fax number

E-mail address

jnieto@cultura.gob.pe

Other relevant information

B

Mr

B. Status of element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List

Refer to the nomination file or to previous reports, if any, as the basis for reporting on the current status of the element, and report only on relevant changes since the date of inscription on the List or since the previous report. Nomination files, specific timetables and earlier reports, if any, are available at https://ich.unesco.org or from the Secretariat, upon request.

The State Party shall pay special attention to the role of gender and shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report, and is asked to describe how it has done so in point D below.

B.1.

Social and cultural functions

Please explain the social and cultural functions and meanings of the element today, within and for its community, the characteristics of the bearers and practitioners, and any specific roles or categories of persons with special responsibilities towards the element, among others. Attention should be given to any relevant changes related to inscription criterion U.1 (‘the element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention’).

Social and cultural functions

The Eshuva are sacred songs sung in Huachipaire language which fundamental purpose is the healing of diseases by invoking the spirits of plants or animals; they are also used to relieve a person who is going through difficult periods in his or her live and to achieve specific objectives .
The people who are entitled to use the Eshuva songs are known as Wamanokkaeri which means wise healer or shaman and must have vocation to cure and recognition within the community.
The Eshuva songs are a practice that identifies and defines the Huachipaire ethnic group in particular, and the Harákmbut in general. It is an Important element of the Harákmbut worldview and is related to their beliefs, thoughts and actions.
The Eshuva songs are the expression of Huachipaire religious myths in which the close relationship of people to their natural environment is appreciated. Through Eshuva the forces of nature are invoke to obtain concrete achievements such as healing. The Eshuva is part of a cure system consisting in finding the cause of illness and subsequent recovery. These songs are sung in major healing ceremonies as well as meetings and visits from other cultures to protect their energy, they are also sung in the initiation ceremony of the new singers. Regarding social ceremonies, singing Eshuva singing gives the group a feeling of invulnerability derived from the power attributed to the spirits of nature that are Invoked. Is with this help easier for the Harákmbut to face any risk or threat.
In the performance of the Eshuva songs no musical instruments are used, only the voice of the singer is performed who solely uses the Huachipaire language. This feature gives greater importance since it serve as a contingency element to threats of deterritorialization and cultural rupture.
For native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros the Eshuva songs are part of their most intimate and foundational traditions, they express their relationship with the forest and the interpretation of the spirits message for the life of the Huachipaire culture, its sacredness does not allow its mass diffusion but its particular use when situations that require healing appear.
The Eshuva is a testimony from the past and from the present of the Huachipaire and of their hope for future knowledge, as a cultural expression that gives them plausible answers to issues related to their origin and to their future.

B.2.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

Please describe the current level of viability of the element, particularly the frequency and extent of its practice, the strength of traditional modes of transmission, the demographics of practitioners and audiences and its sustainability. Please also identify and describe the threats, if any, to the element's continued transmission and enactment and describe the severity and immediacy of such threats, giving particular attention to any strengthening or weakening of the element’s viability subsequent to inscription.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

The practice and use of Eshuva songs is still limited despite the efforts to encourage it. The Eshuva songs are at the risk of being lost, since the traditional process of transmission has been interrupted due to the lack of interest of the Harákmbut youth in learning them, internal migration to other parts of the country, and also due to the influence and assimilation of foreign cultural elements.
The decreasing frequency with which the Eshuva is carried out among the Huachipaire is a major factor.
Although in the past the Eshuva was an extended practice among the Huachipaire, nowadays as an ethnic referent it is only performed by very few and elderly members of the group. Currently, we have contact only with seven local wise elders (wamanokkaeri) who know and maintain in force this cultural expression, they all live in the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Qeros, located in the district of K'osñipata, province of Paucartambo in Cusco and they are:
• Cesar Colón Huareto.
• Sergio Pacheco Ambeo.
• Pepe Solisonquehua.
• Manuela Ramos.
• Manuel Solisonquehua.
• Melchor Ramos
• Estela Dariquebe.
It should be noted that unfortunately two of the local wise elders died at the time of the registration of this element on the Urgent Safeguarding List. On the other hand, three other wise elders no longer live in the district of K'osñipata and we could not communicate with them.
The frequency of use of these songs is restricted to adults over 40 years old, however, the challenge remains to reach the youth which would consolidate the transmission process, the efforts made since the registration were the creation of intergenerational learning spaces and to promote the dissemination of the Huachipaire culture to raise the interest of new generations.
One of the most important threat for the continuity of the Eshuva Songs, and in general for the culture of the Huachipaire people, is the racial-ethnic discrimination made by groups or external agents that live in the district of K´osñipata. These agents influence teenagers from the native communities who feel ashamed to express themselves in their mother tongue; and children who have little interest in learning their Huachipaire mother tongue.
Another major threat identified is the lack of the intercultural and bilingual approach in the educational program at the educational institutions located in the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros. The need of a system based on the revitalization of the Huachipaire language program is urgent.
Finally, another great threat concerns the little cultural relevance of the health program carried out by the local health facility in the district of K'osñipata. The working staff in this facility does not known and does not take into account local expressions related to health care praticed by the population, especially the Eshuva songs.

B.3.

Implementation of safeguarding measures

Please report on the safeguarding measures described in the nomination file, and previous report, if any. Describe how they have been implemented and how they have substantially contributed to the safeguarding of the element during the reporting period, taking note of external or internal constraints such as limited resources. Include, in particular, information on the measures taken to ensure the viability of the element by enabling the community to continue to practise and transmit it. Include the following detailed information concerning the implementation of the set of safeguarding measures or safeguarding plan:

B.3.a.

Objectives and results

Indicate what primary objective(s) were addressed and what concrete results were attained during the reporting period.

Objectives and results

Objective 1. Encourage the process of intergenerational transmission of the Huachipaire culture elements as a contribution to its permanence in time.
Results:
Achievement of the commitment from the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros to elaborate and implement safeguard measures.
Establishment of an oral transmission space of Eshuva songs devoted to heal diseases. Alberto Manqueriapa Vitente, Santa Rosa´s de Huacaria leader, was in charged of this space.
The interest and commitment for the Huachipaire cultural manifestations and its intergenerational transmission increased in the Huachipaire communities with the participation of the wise elders.
The creation of a cultural exchange space for children which aims the affirmation of Huachipaire cultural features.
A communal physical space for meetings and for the exhibition of the main Huachipaire culture feautures.
Objective 2. Record and identify cultural manifestations with the participation of local wise elders to strengthen Huachipaire cultural identity.
Results:
The audio recording of the Eshuva, Embachiha and Embachinoha songs, and its distribution among the members of the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros.
The publication of the Huachipaire-Castilian dictionary: "ORO HATE EMÄNDOYA" after a collaborative work between the communities and the Descentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
Huachipaire songs were positioned among the district and province authorities through the dissemination of the phonographic material.
Objective 3. Promote institutional actions that will contribute to the Eshuva safeguarding
Results:
The commitment of educational institutions from the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros to promote oral transmission of Huachipaire culture was achieved. It is intended that the district authorities from K'osñipata give major interest in safeguarding the cultural manifestations of the Huachipaire culture giving priority to teachers who know the local language at the recruitment for educational institutions.
The K'osñipata District Municipality issued a Municipal Regulation against Racial and Ethnic Discrimination and this regulation also promotes the linguistic rights of the Huachipaire language. In addition, there a disposition to use the Huachipaire language in all public institutions for public attention and the signaling of public services in Huachipaire language in the native communities and in the K'osñipata district.
The consolidation of a local representative association for the safeguarding of the Huachipaire culture and the Eshuva songs.
Objective 4. Dissemination of the Huachipaire Culture
Results:
The dissemination of the Huachipaire culture was achieved in public spaces in the city of Cusco.
Through cultural gatherings in the K'osñipata District the Huachipaire culture is being recognized.
The Huachipaire culture was disseminated in the Second Book Fair 2015 held in the city of Cusco, through an exhibition of 20 photographs taken and selected by the communities.
The Huachipaire culture was disseminated in the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington D.C. United States in 2015. During this festival a panel discussion about Eshuva Songs focus on its therapeutic use and cultural affirmation was held.  

B.3.b.

Safeguarding activities

List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.

Safeguarding activities

Creation of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding, made up by the communities Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros. This committee along with the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, has focused on registering the Eshuva songs and identifying their cultivators.
- Identification of the singers of Eshuva and registration of thirteen songs. These songs are archived in the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco and in the communities. The Eshuva songs are a fundamental part of the Huachipaire traditions because they represent their relationship with the forest and the interpretation of the message of the spirits for the life of the Culture. The holiness of the songs does not allow their mass distribution but instead their specific use for healing purposes.
The Committee’s provisions dictate that the recordings of the Eshuva songs performed in 2012 must be archived exclusively in the Santa Rosa of Huacaria and Queros communities and in custody of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco. This material has as ultimate objective the transmission of the songs to new generations of young Huachipaire people. Along those lines, their distribution will be the responsibility of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding in coordination with the professional team of the Ministry of Culture.
The following Eshuva songs have been registered,
• Bihichindign.
• Emepugete.
• Totochindign.
• Wawëchindign.
• Ekmimichindai.
• Washisopachindign.
• Wamiekate Wamanokkae.
• Nokirëngre emanokkae.
• Ekhen vt.
• Uugate emanka.
• Ewäsösuwa. .
• Ekpugoite Eshuva.
• Hindakkoichindign.
- Building two “Casas de la Memoria” (House of Memory) in the Santa Rosa of Huacaria and Queros communities. This was the result of agreements between the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding and members of these communities that determined creating a physical space for performing the ritual ceremonies related to the Eshuva songs and also for performing other cultural expressions. The Casas de la Memoria were finished in 2013 as a result of the collective work of both communities.
- Identification of the three different types of Huachipaire songs according to their cultural use, Eshuva, Embachiha y Embachinoha. Thanks to the participation of the Wamanokkaeri (wise elders), two additional types of Huachipaire songs have been identified: the Embachiha songs, performed before sharing masato (traditional beverage) and also as a celebration of personal achievements; and the Embachinoha songs, which narrate experiences related to nature.
- Registration of seventeen (17) Embachiha and Embachinoha songs in digital audio, which was done with the elders of the communities. A thousand (1,000) copies of this record were edited and distributed following a plan designed by the Safeguarding Committee. This compact disc has been received enthusiastically by the communities and has stimulated the interest of the local authorities that were not aware of these cultural expressions.
- Elaboration of the Dictionary Huachipaire-Spanish “ORO HATE EMÄNDOYA”. Twenty (20) Huachipaire-speakers from the Santa Rosa de Huacaria y Queros communities participated in the elaboration of this dictionary. With the advice of Linguistics specialists, this group of native Huachipaire speakers has written Huachipaire words from a variety of semantic fields and their meaning in Spanish. This is the first time that the translation of the term “Wachiperi” is used, meaning “those who flourished after the events of the end of the world”, this is part of the fundamental process of cultural affirmation of this people.
- Creation of the “Native Ethnic Association Wachiperi Eori” – ANEWE- (2014) that encompasses the Santa Rosa of Huacaria and Queros communities. This organization reflects the interests of both communities as regarded by the local authorities, and other public and private organizations. The ANAWE and the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco have promoted two meetings about the Huachipaire culture where the people shared dances and singing in a festive environment.
- The creation of a space for the affirmative cultural exchange amongst children of the three cultural groups living in the communities: Huachiperi, Matsigenka and Q´ero. This was achieved thanks to the support of educational institutions. Multiple musical expressions are shared in this space, including the Embachinoha songs that have an especial importance for the Huachipaire as they are greatly related to the Eshuva songs.
- Dissemination of the Huachipaire culture in the city of Cusco. Twenty residents of the communities Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros took pictures of places, people and scenes of their culture. These photos were exhibited in the exposition “ORONDA HÖHEÏ” (“Somos Nosotros”,“This is who we are”) part of the second Cusco International Book Fair in 2015. After the fair was ended, these pictures were returned to the residents and placed in the “Casas de la Memoria” of each community.
- Dissemination of the Huachipaire culture in the United States. The NGO, ACCA (Association for the Conservation of the Amazonic Basin), supported the participation of a group of the Huachipaire people in the Smithsonian Folklife Festival en Washington D.C. US, in 2015. A talk about the Eshuva songs was part of the festival, focused on their use for healing purposes and cultural affirmation.
- Design of the “Planes de Vida” (Life Plans) of the Huachipaire communities Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros (2015). The ANEWE has assumed the leadership of this project with the support of local NGOs (ACCA) and organizations from each community that represent native population such as the Federación de Comunidades Nativas de la Cuenca del Río Madre de Dios –FENAMAD (Federation of Native Communities of the Basin of the Madre de Dios River)
- The district municipality of K'osñipata delivered a municipal mandate against the racial and ethnic discrimination and the promotion of the linguistic rights of the Huachipaire tongue. At the same time, they mandate the use of the Huachipaire tongue in all public institutions for all interaction with the public and when implementing public services within the native communities and the K'osñipata district.
The limited budget allocated by the local governments for the registration and inventory of the immaterial Huachipaire culture is one of the main obstacles for the implementation of additional safeguarding measures.

B.3.c.

Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

Describe how communities, groups or, if appropriate, individuals as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have effectively participated, including in terms of gender roles, in the safeguarding measures. Describe the role of the implementing organization or body (name, background, etc.) and the human resources that were available for implementing safeguarding activities.

Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

The native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros -initially a member of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding and later a member of the "Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association" (ANEWE) - actively participate in the elaboration and implementation of the safeguarding measures of the Eshuva songs and the Huachipaire intagible cultural heritage.
The communities’ chiefs, Mr. Julián Dariquebe Gerewa, Mr. Alberto Manqueria Vitente and the Wiseman Sergio Pacheco Hambeo identified the Eshuva singers and selected the songs for recording. These three persons lead and coordinate the safeguarding process of the sacred Eshuva songs.
The Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros population have a main role and participate actively in the festivities through the presentation of songs and dances in the Huachipaire language. They have also actively participated in the workshops and cultural meetings. The population of both native communities, with their leaders, built two houses of memory (Casas de la Memoria) with funding from the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco of the Ministry of Culture. The community work was crucial for the strong development of these spaces for transmission of the Huachipaire culture and, in particular, of the Eshuva songs.
The Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding worked with the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco in the identification of the three types of Huachipaire songs: Eshuva, Embachiha and Embachinoha. The digital record and the publishing of these songs were performed considering what was proposed by the communities’ authorities. The distribution of this material was also realized in agreement with the songs’ cultivators.
Twenty Huachipaire speakers participated in the elaboration of the Huachipaire-Spanish Dictionary “ORO HATE EMÄNDOYA”. All of them were members of the Huachipaire native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros.
The Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association (ANEWE) organized each safeguarding activity of the diverse Huachipaire cultural expressions, including the opportunities for cultural exchange in the schools, the collecting of photographic material for its distribution in the Cusco Book Fair, and the formulation of the communities’ “life plans” (Planes de Vida). The ANAWE, along with the NGO Association for the Conservation of the Amazonian Basin – ACCA, also organized the participation of the delegation who traveled to the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington D.C, USA.

B.3.d.

Timetable and budget

Indicate in a timetable when each activity was implemented and the funds that were used for its implementation, identifying the source of funding for each (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

Timetable and budget

-- 2011: Creation of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding made up by the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros. This action did not use funds.
- 2011: Identification of the cultivators and recording of the Eshuva songs for the Huachipaire communities. This record was archived at the Direction of Interculturality for the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, their subsequent distribution will be done only within the two contributing native communities because the songs are considered sacred by the Huachipaire people. No funds involved. It had the active participation of the leaders Alberto Manqueriapa Vitente and Sergio Pacheco Hambeo. The recording was performed by staff hired by the Decentralized Culture Directorade of Cusco.
- 2012: Recording and filming of the immaterial cultural manifestations of the culture Huachipaire under the responsibility of the native leader Alberto Manqueriapa Vitente. No funds involved. It had the active and unconditional participation of this Huachipaire leader from the native community of Santa Rosa de Huacaria.
- 2011 – 2013: Building of two Casas de la Memoria Huachipaire in the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria y Queros as physical spaces for the transmission and safeguarding of the immaterial cultural heritage of the culture Huachipaire. Cost, S/.50,000.00 (Fifty thousand Nuevos soles) Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2013: Recording of 1000 copies of the Huachipaire Embachiha and Embachinoha songs, with the participation of the wisemen of the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros. Cost S/.10,000.00 (Ten thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2014: Creation, edition and publication of the Dictionary Huachipaire Spanish “Oro Hate Emändoya” for the safeguarding and sustainability of the Huachipaire language. Cost S/.25,000.00 (Twenty-five thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2014: “I ENCUENTRO DE LA CULTURA HUACHIPAIRE” (First Meeting on the Huachipaire Culture), event organized for the creation of the “Asociación Nativo Étnica Wachiperi Eori” – ANEWE, for the strengthening of the rights of the Huachipaire people and the exercise of the cultural citizenship. Cost S/.8,000.00 (Eight thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2015: “II ENCUENTRO DE LA CULTURA HUACHIPAIRE” (Second Meeting on the Huachipaire Culture), event realized with the participation of public institutions, for the strengthening of the rights of the Huachipaire people and the exercise of the cultural citizenship. Cost S/.8,000.00 (Eight thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2015: “I Encuentro Intercultural de niños y niñas Huachipaire, Matsigenka y Q´ero Andino” (First Intercultural Meeting of Huachipaire, Matsigenka and Q´ero Andino boys and girls), exchange of knowledge called “Riqsinakuspa Wiñarisun”, and exchange trip to Machupicchu. Cost S/.19,000.00 (Nineteen thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2015: Photo exhibit “ORONDA HÖHEÏ” (“Somos Nosotros”, “This is us”) and release of the Huachiperi Dictionary in the Second Cusco International Book Fair, where dictionary authors and photographers showed part of their cultural traditions such as the Waname dance and Embachiha songs.
- 2015: Participation of representatives of the Huachipaire people in the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington D.C., US, presenting the Huachipaire culture and the Eshuva songs. Presentation carried out thanks to the NGO Asociación para la Conservación de la Cuenca Amazónica (Association for the Conversation of the Amazonian Basin) – ACCA.
In recent years the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco of Ministery of Culture, assigns the professionals hired to coordinate and safeguard the Huachipaire culture, in association with the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros, and the “Asociación Nativo Étnica Wachiperi Eori” (Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association) – ANEWE.

B.3.e

Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

Provide an overall assessment of the effectiveness of the activities undertaken to achieve the expected results and of the efficiency of the use of funds for implementing the activities. Please indicate how the activities contributed to achieving the results and whether other activities could have contributed better to achieving the same results. Also indicate whether the same results could have been achieved with less funding, whether the human resources available were appropriate and whether communities, groups and individuals could have been better involved.

Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

The safeguarding actions underway consider the Eshuva songs as a part of a complex social system that involves the whole Huachipaire culture. Along those lines, the reinforcement of the language, the creation of the spaces for transmission and dissemination, and the identification and promotion of other related manifestations have become fundamental to the safeguarding process of the songs.
The process of revitalization of the Huachipaire culture and the Eshuva songs has undergone different phases and has had a progressive efficacy. Communities were initially skeptical in regards to actions such as the identification of the local wisemen and the registration of the song, however their interest and commitment started to grow once they saw the results. With that in mind, it was vital to secure the active participation of native speakers and the bearers of the knowledge, especially the elderly (above 60 years old) who are now dedicated to the transmission of their knowledge. Incorporating the younger native community population in the process is still a challenge. The identification of the Eshuva songs and the recording of 14 of these songs are actions with a great contribution to the safeguarding process. These songs are in the archive of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco and in the communities’ archives.
One of the most effective actions with indirect impact on the situation of the Eshuva songs is the creation of a space for transmission of the oral tradition to boys and girls in the educational institutions. This space has been very well received by boys and girls and the adults who have shared their knowledge and even though it is a medium term project, small progress are noticeable such as the exhibit of the esxression in the intercultural dialogue in 2015 with boys and girls of other culture and in the culture meetings.
Understanding the Huachipaire culture as a complex and diverse system has also fostered the publication of the Huachipaire-Spanish Dictionary. The need for this tool stems from the situation of risk the Huachipaire language faces since only 20% of the communities’ population speaks this language. This situation involves the Eshuva songs because this language is their vehicle. That is why printing and disseminating the dictionary has allowed the educators and authorities to contribute to the process of revitalization of the Huachipaire language, creating a legacy of the writing and the culture core concepts for the new generations.
On the other hand, amongst the actions that we expect will be successful are those associated with the production of audiovisuals that gather the expressions and cultural traditions which will be distributed through the educational institutions in the communities under the professional advice of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco with the goal of emphasizing the intergenerational transmission. At the same time, sharing with the new generations the testimonials about the use and healing properties of the Eshuva songs with the objective of appreciating their cultural richness.
Finally, the Regional Directorate of Health will consider the strengthening of the staff’s capacities/knowledge of the Eshuva songs at the K'osñipata community as a resource to care for the health of the community from a perspective associated to their culture.

B.4. Community participation

Please describe how communities, groups and individuals, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have been involved, including in terms of gender roles, in updating the safeguarding plan, and how they will be involved in its implementation.

Community participation

The communities are firmly committed to seek and secure an increased participation of the Huachipaire wisemen in the transmission of the immaterial cultural manifestations and the teaching of the mother tongue within the family nucleus. The awareness and verification that the culture and their language are at risk have generated among them a growing will to become involved with the safeguarding actions. The participation of the members of both native communities has been dynamic and positive in the identification of the wisemen and the registration of the songs.
The Huachipaire community organizations have been a part of the whole process by making up the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding, especially the elderly. This committee has scheduled the initial safeguarding actions and supported the identification process of the Eshuva singers and the registration of the Eshuva songs that still exist.
The Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association - ANEWE- was created because of the need for a representative organization that interacts with entities from the government both local and national. This association is in process of positioning and empowerment. One of its first actions has been to propose to the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco the declaration as Nactional Cultural Heritage of the Hingkiori petroglyphs, sacred stone that represents one of the foundational myths of the Huachipaire culture that is located in the K'osñipata district. The ANEWE takes leadership in this way and faces the challenge of protecting and recovering the songs in addition of their role in the Safeguarding Committee.
The technical support of the professional team of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco has been permanent during the scheduled actions. In this way the Ministry of Culture has assumed its commitment to the safeguarding of the Eshuva songs.
The NGO Association for the Conservation of the Amazonian Basin – ACCA- is visible in the area, its work impacts indirectly the safeguarding of cultural expressions. ACCA's institutional interest is to research and disseminate the relationship of the Huachipaire with the forest and nature for conservation purposes.

B.5. Institutional context

Please report on the institutional context for the local management and safeguarding of the element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, including:

  1. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
  2. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding.

Institutional context

The organizations involved in the safeguarding process are:
In the community side :
• The native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros, which have been working with the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco in diverse activities for the safeguarding of the “Eshuva”, Harakmbut prayer sungs prayers.
• The Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding, , made up by local Wisemen with the commitment of safeguarding the songs.
• Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association (ANEWE)
At the regional level, the competent Ministry of Culture's entity for the safeguarding of the Eshuva songs is the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco through the Área Funcional de Derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas (AFDPI) for the Intercultural Directorate.
The AFDPI works with the government of the K'osñipata district and the municipality of the Paucartambo province, involving them in the revitalization of the language and the culture.

B.6. Participation of communities in preparing this report

Describe the measures taken to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparation of this report.

Participation of communities in preparing this report

In order to craft this report, two workshops were done with each native community Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros, where the current situation of the Eshuva songs and other Huachipaire cultural expressions was analyzed. One of the conclusions from these workshops was the need for the adults’ encouraging role of the use of the Huachipaire language amongst children under five. During these meetings, we gathered testimonials of healing experiences produced by the Eshuva songs, which will be incorporated in our future work strategy, it is vital that the new generations know the benefits of the songs and oral traditions of the culture itself.
During these work sessions, we noted a growing interest and commitment with the revitalization of the Huachipaire culture, but also the feeling of "having little support" in this process. In that sense, during 2016 the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco will implement a signaling system in Huachipaire language in the two native communities and the public institutions of the K'osnipata district. At the same time, the municipality of K'osñipata has been involved with the revitalization process by committing themselves to hire teachers of the Huachipaire language for the educational institutions during the school year of 2016.

C

Ministry of Culture of Peru

C. Signature on behalf of the state party

The report should conclude with the original signature of the official empowered to sign it on behalf of the State, together with his or her name, title and the date of submission.

Name

Mr. Jorge Nieto Montesinos

Title

Minister of Culture

Date

09-2016

Signature

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