El Tuuli mongol, epopeya mongola

    

Inscrito en 2009 (4.COM) en la Lista del Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial que requiere medidas urgentes de salvaguardia

© 2009 by Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO :

El Tuuli mongol es una tradición oral que comprende relatos épicos de varios centenares a varios miles de versos, en los que se combinan bendiciones, panegíricos, hechizos, expresiones idiomáticas, cuentos de hadas, mitos y canciones folclóricas. Está considerado como una enciclopedia viva de las tradiciones orales mongolas e inmortaliza la heroica historia del pueblo mongol. Sus intérpretes se distinguen no sólo por su memoria prodigiosa y su talento artístico portentoso en el arte del canto, la improvisación vocal y la composición musical, sino también por sus dotes teatrales. Los cantos épicos se interpretan con el acompañamiento de instrumentos musicales como el morin khuur (violín con cabeza de caballo) y el tovshuur (laúd). Las representaciones tienen lugar con motivo de eventos sociales y públicos de toda clase, por ejemplo actos oficiales, bodas, ceremonias del primer corte de cabello de un niño, juegos naadam (torneos de lucha, certámenes de tiro al arco y carreras de caballos) y ritos de veneración de sitios sagrados. Estas narraciones épicas han evolucionado con el correr de los siglos y plasman los modos de vida nómadas, los comportamientos sociales, las ideas religiosas, las mentalidades y la imaginación popular. Los intérpretes cultivan su arte tradicional de generación en generación, aprendiendo, aplicando y transmitiendo sus técnicas de padres a hijos, en el círculo familiar. Por intermedio de las narraciones épicas los mongoles transmiten sus valores a las jóvenes generaciones, reforzando así el sentimiento de identidad, el orgullo y la unidad nacionales. Sin embargo, hoy en día el número de maestros y aprendices en el arte de la narración épica está disminuyendo. Con su desaparición paulatina, todo el sistema de transmisión de conocimientos históricos y culturales se ve gravemente afectado.

Informe periódico

Name of State Party

Mongolia

2005-06-29

Name of element

Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian epic

Inscribed in

2009

Submitting State(s)

Mongolia

01-01-2018 - 31-12-2021

Coaxing ritual for camels (2015)
Folk long song performance technique of Limbe performances - circular breathing (2011)
Mongol Biyelgee, Mongolian traditional folk dance (2009)
Mongolian calligraphy (2013)
Mongolian traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites (2017)
Traditional music of the Tsuur (2009)

Since the inscription of the Mongol Tuuli in the UNESCO List of Cultural Heritage in Need of the Urgent Safeguarding, the positive effect has outweighed the negative. Mongolia has created a favorable legal environment for the safeguarding of the heritage element inscribed in the UNESCO List, implemented targeted projects, and improved the registration and documentation of Mongolian epics, and created a integrated database that meets international standards. Public awareness of Mongolian epics has increased, the number of performers has increased, and practitioner and apprentice relations have improved. As of 2021, there are 22 practitioners registered in the State Registration and Information Database of Cultural Heritage.
The main progress made in Mongolia during the reporting period is that on January 29, 2019, Battulga Khaltmaa, the former President of Mongolia issued the Decree No. 13 “Promoting of the Mongolian Heroic Epic” in order to spread the heroic epic, the proud heritage of the Mongolian people and the source of oral wisdom passed down from generation to generation.
On February 13, 2019, the Government of Mongolia approved the “National Program for the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage” by Resolution No. 68. Accordingly, by the order of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science (April 23, 2019, No. A/235).
Mongolia has carried out the following main activities in the field of safeguarding of Mongolian epic. This includes:
In order to introduce the best samples of Mongolian epics to the public, a copy was made in the national Mongolian script and stored with and honor at the Government Palace. It was decided that every year, on the third day of the first month of winter, heroic epics are performed in the State Ceremony Hall.
The practitioner of the Mongolian epic at a high level of skill was selected through a public opinion poll, and in 2019, Baatarjav Erdenetsogt, a famous performer, and Baldandorj Avirmed in 2020, were awarded the highest state title of “Honored Cultural Worker of Mongolia”.
A.Baldandorj, who is practicing the Epic in his 9th generations and is transmitting this to his children. In accordance to the “Procedure for awarding monetary prizes to heritage practitioners who made significant contributions to the promotion and dissemination of intangible cultural heritage at the national and global levels” approved by the 354th Resolution of the Government of Mongolia was awarded an honorary certificate and a prize of 30.0 million MNT. In 2020, a total of 21 heritage practitioners from 21 provinces and the capital city were nominated for this competition.
According to the request of the local people, an attempt was made to revive the Khalkh Tuuli with the professional participation of scientists and researchers of the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences. 5 forgotten epic performing traditions in Umnugobi were revived in their original environment. To do that researchers at the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (MAS) based their recollections on evidence from the recordings of the province's epic performers recorded on audiotapes in 1961-1983, and stored in the folklore collection.
In 2017, the Science and Technology Foundation project under the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia covered the territory of four countries: western Mongolia, Russian Buryatia, Kalmyk Mongolians, Altai Mountains, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. As a result of a 40-day international research team (including researchers from Mongolia, Russia and China) that covered 20,000 kilometers by car, the “World Epic and Jangar” International Scientific Conference was successfully organized in 2018 to promote the Mongolian epic internationally. During the reporting period, 4 monographs and dozens of scientific articles and reports were published.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Ms

Family name

Tserendorj

Given name

Tsolmon

Institution/position

Coordination Officer for Policy Implementation of Intangible Cultural Heritage Department of Cultural Heritage Ministry of Culture

Address

Ministry of Culture of Mongolia, Sukhbaatar district, 7th sub-district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Telephone number

+976 51-265617; +976 99057308

E-mail address

tsolmon@moc.gov.mn

Other relevant information

The Mongolian epic is a great historical poem of the people who praised the stable state and happy society represented by an equestrian hero, which is the dream of the future well-being of Mongolians, that has come down to us today, transmitted with help of the minds, words and customs of the century-old performers.
Epics are first and foremost an expression of the highest level of skill in the mother tongue. The average length of Oirat Mongolian epics is 1500-2000 lines, and the average length of Khalkha epics is about 1000 lines. For example, a version of the epic “Bum Erdene” has 51,265 lines of poetry, the most important of which is transmitted by oral performance.
Mongolian epics range from ancient mythology to folklore, worldview, history, ethnography, religion, customs, traditions, beauty, morality, language, and music. It is a complex work that contains many elements of the subject. Therefore, it is a source of spirituality and art of the Mongolian ethnic group and a unique feature that distinguishes Mongolians from other nations.
Mongolian epics are recited by people who specialize and inherited the art of composing epics with the use of musical instruments such as tovshuur, morin khuur, and ekhil. It is a custom that is recited with a special purpose, not for the purpose of rejoicing. For example, Mongolian epics are classified as hard and soft, and the purpose of the ritual is clear, such as when a new family is married and before hunting. Therefore, Mongolian epics are not limited to the art of words and retain the characteristics of ancient art.
The narrators were masters of words that met the intellectual and artistic needs of the country's citizens. According to academician Ts. Damdinsuren, they were "a theater with one actor, playing for the people the role of a trio - acting to watch, music to listen and books to read at the same time." Today, most of the epic performers are well versed in Mongolian traditions and have inherited a variety of traditional arts and folklore in addition to epics. For example, the performer A.Baldandorj will play a 12-hour epic and sing folk songs, and perform throat singing. E.Baatarjav plays ancient and rare musical instruments and plays tsuur. Under the influence of such performers, many youths ethno-bands were formed and consulted with them.
The original purpose of the Tuuli is still alive and important in the lives of the people, with its ceremonial and ritual nature.

A report on the state of the Tuuli heritage element in 2017 states that “by the beginning of the 21st century, Mongolia's living tradition of performing epics is on the verge of extinction and oblivion”, but in recent years, the viability of the Mongolian Tuuli has improved to a certain extent. For example, registration and documentation have been improved and the skills of performers have been identified, eligible performers have been awarded badges and certificates, regional research has been conducted, a series of volumes on the best of Mongolian epics have been published, and the quality of scholars' education has been improved. However, there are still some challenges to the current viability of the Mongolian epic.
- Negative influences on the performing the epics began to be observed. For example, Mongolian epics have traditionally had a special ritual character, and herders invite performers to recite epics in order to increase their herds and have a better living (for example, families that couldn't have children to have children, for the elderly to stay healthy and live longer life). This tradition is still followed in rural areas. In urban areas, however, the use some parts of epics, rather than, as a form of performing art is on the rise.
- Epic performance festivals and competitions are organized in large numbers or announced not at the appropriate season, has a negative impact on the quality of epic performance. In other words, although there has never been a tradition of competition and selection of performers and heritage practitioners, nowadays there are more and more competitions with high prizes at locally and abroad, which may lead the performer to focus only on preparing for competitions and festivals. In addition to the talent of the performer, it is necessary to take into account not only the innate talent, but also the knowledge and adherence to national traditions, mastery of native language skills, moral example, and real contribution to society.
- Mongolia has achieved good results in publishing, disseminating, and safeguarding epic poems. However, it should be noted that the level of research is insufficient.
- In Mongolia, the distribution of epics was stable, and there were epicenters of epics in ethnic groups, but for social, historical, and political reasons, most centers were largely extinct. However, there are elderly people in the so-called extinct epic centers who are not real performers, but who know the story, memorize it, and recite it within the family. They are often unaware of the importance of epic heritage or understand it as a culture that only exists in ethnic groups that have relatively well-preserved traditions. Therefore, there is a need to revive the epic heritage of ethnic groups that are considered “forgotten” and to support an equal approach to the recognition of the heritage element of other ethnic groups that have preserved the Tuuli heritage.?????

After the “Mongolian Epic” was inscribed on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, the President of Mongolia issued a decree on “Promoting Heroic Epics” in 2019 and the Government approved the “National Program for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage”.
Starting from 2020, the Minister of Culture of Mongolia has signed annual agreements with the governors of 21 provinces and the capital city regarding the protection of the cultural heritage, which has increased the role and participation of local governments in the protection of cultural heritage.
In 2021, the Government of Mongolia decided to establish Culture Departments in the provinces. It is hoped that the reorganization of the Province Governor's Office into a “Department of Education and Culture” with a small number of people in charge of cultural issues will improve the preservation and safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage, the quality and access to cultural services, and the implementation of state cultural policy.
During the reporting period, the study focused on the specifics of Mongolian Epics, focusing on documenting, and registering epics, conducting examination and festivals. First, to create a cultural environment for epics (to prepare listeners and readers, to emphasize the purpose of rituals, to raise knowledge of the students on epics, etc.) and second, to make the best of the Mongolian epics known to general public and promote practitioners.
Within the framework of the above goal, the following objectives were set. These include:
Implement targeted projects to safeguard “Mongolian Epic” and its cultural environment as a matter of priority, and to promote it to public.
To organize scientific, theoretical, and practical conferences on the study and promotion of Mongolian Epics, performers and its cultural environment,
Improve the methodology of registration and documentation of Mongolian Epics; to develop and enforce common standards in soums, districts, provinces and the capital city; to register and document schools and repertoire of epic performers practicing the heritage element at a high level of skill,
To carry out certain activities to perform Mongolian Epics in their authentic environment and to safeguard the cultural space of epics.
The results
Cooperation between local, governmental and non-governmental organizations aimed at safeguarding and promoting the “Mongolian Epic” will be improved. Targeted projects in areas with relatively good transmission of Tuuli will be successfully implemented.
International and domestic events to determine, study and promote the spread of the “Jangar” epic among Mongolian epics will be organized.
Registration of epics and performers will be updated every year, and the soum, district, provinces and capital city funds will be enriched.
Multi-faceted events to promote and glorify the highly skilled performers, to perform the epic in a realistic way, and to show their skills will be organized regularly, and the quality of the apprentice trainings will be raised.
Scholars and researchers from many countries will work together to promote the study of Mongolian epics at the national and regional levels, and the publication of their works will be a good example for the world.

Following measures were implemented:

1. Improving the legal environment:

-The Decree of the President of Mongolia on “Promoting of Mongolian Heroic Epics” enshrines the duty of all citizens to safeguard, research, transmit, promote internationally the heritage element, and to support performers, researchers, and practitioners.
-In July 2021, the Law on Cultural Heritage Protection was amended. The article 14.1.10. of the law amended to "Protect and revive the authenticity and integrity of historical and cultural immovable monuments listed in the World Heritage Tentative List and the World Heritage List, safeguard and strengthen the viability of intangible cultural heritage listed in the UNESCO Representative List and List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding to include measures in the annual state budget and implement them;". The amendment will take effect on January 1, 2022.
2. In the field of registration and research:
-The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science selected the project “Comprehensive research, promotion and innovation of Jangar Tuul” by the NGO “Jangar Studies” and implemented it in 2017-2018. Within the framework of the project, the "Jangar Study 2017", a joint international research team of Mongolian, Russian and Chinese scientists, with aim to identify the distribution of the Jangar Tuul, traveled 20,000 km and conducted survey in Mongolia, Russia's Buryatia, Bashkortostan, Kalmykia, the Altai Republic, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. During the trip, 6,800 minutes of video and more than 5,000 photos were made and 15 TV series content were produced. In 2018, as a result of this expedition, the “World Epics and Jangar” International Scientific Symposium and Poetry Festival was successfully organized in Ulaanbaatar.
-The Institute of Language and Literature of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences implemented a joint international project “The annotate catalog of traditional motifs of the Mongolian people” (2018-2020) in collaboration with Mongolian-speaking Buryat and Kalmyk scholars in Russia.
3. In the field of training and promotion:
-The Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports implemented a project to direct the drama “Jangar” to local theaters, and in 2018, the Khovd Music and Drama Theater staged the 7-act anthem “Legendary King, the Fierce Jangar”, which demonstrates the courage of the heroes of the Jangar epic and the progress they make in consultation and decision-making. This was the first drama based on an epic.
-Zavkhan province's Childrens Theatre is preparing a modern play based on the “Jangar” epic for children.
-A cooperation agreement was signed between the Institute of Language and Literature, the Governor's Office of Umnugovi province, and the Department of Education, Culture, and Arts, on the “Revitalization of Gobi Khalkh Tuul” project. Project was successfully implemented, a total of 5 epics were revived. In March 2019, a research team was set up in the province to revive the Gobi Khalkh epics. Researchers at the Institute of Linguistics have begun a recovery experiment based on the full transcripts and research materials of the eight epics recorded on tape in 1957, 1974, 1983. At the same time, after selecting people who had heard the epic recited at an early age, and conducting two trainings, the reviving measures were implemented in stages. So far, 10 adults have learned and practiced 5 epics, and in 2021 they successfully participated in the International Epics Festival "At the call of the land of Olonkho" organized by the Russian National Commission for UNESCO and the Yakutia Olonkho Center in Russia. The main difficulty in reviving the Khalkh Tuul was the perception that many Khalkhs did not have epics, only the Oirat Mongols, and that much effort had to be made to correct and expand knowledge about them.
-The “Khaan Tuulisiin Urguu (Palace for Khaan Epic)” has established a tradition of performing epics on the eve of Tsagaan Sar (Lunar New Year), the traditional Mongolian holiday, and broadcast them nationwide. This event was further confirmed by the decree of the President of Mongolia “Honoring the Heroic Epic”, and on the occasion of the annual Tsagaan Sar holiday, the third day of the first month of spring, and the third day of the first month of winter on the occasion of Mongolian Pride Day, heroic epics will be performed at the State Ceremony Hall. In the past, people used to go to Buddhist temples to hear Tibetan prayers and seek refuge in order to live happily without pain in the coming year, but now some people prefer to go to epic performing places to participate in the epic performing traditions.
-“Enlightenment Campaign” initiated by the Prime Minister of Mongolia, the DAS Ikher Foundation and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation jointly published and disseminated the original source of the “Jangar” epic. Five copies each were donated to 376 branches of the state public libraries.
-In 2019, the epic performer B.Bayarmagnai gave a master class lecture on “Melody Night of Oral Culture”. He is a state-certified practitioner who completely performs “Jangar” and “Geser” epics. The event was co-organized by the Government Implementing Agency Department of Culture and Arts, the "Temuulel Records" NGO, and the intangible cultural heritage practitioners.
-In 2020, at the initiative of the wrestler Bumbayar D, the originals of “Jangar” and “Geser” epics were archived on a golden and silver flash drives and donated to the Uvs province museum. The wrestler fulfilled his civic duty by combining 12 chapters of “Jangar”, and 50 chapters of “Geser” epics, enriching the museum exhibits with his own resources for promoting to youths.
4. For supporting practitioners:
-A public poll was conducted to identify the heritage practitioners of the Mongolian epic with in high level of skill, and in 2019 Baatarjav Erdenetsogt, a well-known Mongolian epic singer, and in 2020 Baldandorj Avirmed were awarded the “Honored Cultural Worker of Mongolia”.
-In accordance with the “Procedure for awarding monetary prizes to heritage practitioners who have made a significant contribution to the promotion and dissemination of intangible cultural heritage at the national and global levels” approved by the 354th Resolution of the Government of Mongolia, A. Baldandorj was awarded an honorary certificate and prize of 30.0 million MNT.

In 2019-2021, the Department of Education, Culture and Arts of Umnugovi province jointly with the Institute of Language and Literature carried out the work of reviving 8 epics. These epics were recorded on tape and by hand in 1961, 1974, and 1983 as part of the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences' collection of Khalkha folklore. The institute's oral historians have recorded these epics from tapes, cleaned them in a professional recording studio, converted them to MP3 format, made them available for listening, and used them as teaching aids and guides for epic performers. In May 2020, Umnugobi cultural experts and linguists conducted a research in the province and interviewed a woman named Horloo, who lives in Dalanzadgad, the province center. Based on this “living” tradition, theoretical and methodological training on Khalkh Tuul teaching was organized in July 2020, U.Batjargal, S.Munkhjargal, J.Dagvasamba, Shoovdor, Yo.Gandulam, B.Myagmarsuren participated in the training. According to the program, 6 people expressed their desire to learn about the structure, classification and features of Mongolian and Khalkh epics and to understand the nature of Gobi epics. They used the time they were at home under COVID quarantine to prepare the epics. At present, 3 out of 5 epics are performed in the original way, 2 epics are performed with the accompaniment of a musical instrument, and performed in the foal branding ritual.
In addition, the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences has successfully compiled and prepared for publication book (520 pages A4), including audio album, of local dialects and oral literature, including the epics of the Gobi Khalkhs.
The epic performer Bayarmagnai visited schools and kindergartens in Arkhangai, Sukhbaatar, Bulgan, Zavkhan provinces and Darkhan city and gave concerts and lectures. A total of 8,000 students took part in the physical demonstration and listening to the epics. Three curricula have been developed with the participation of teachers and experts in the field of oral literature. He first meets with the teachers and then teaches the students in a playful and interesting way. Recently, free and online classes have been offered to children who want to study. The epic performer B.Bayarmagnai is well supported by schools and cultural experts, Mongolian language and literature teachers, and teaching methods associations. He said the only cost of the trip are petrol and food, so he had to negotiate with the school and people in advance. Currently, he receives a fee of 3,000 MNT from the school or from the family, and 1,000 MNT of that donated to the current soum school. Prior to the COVID outbreak, he earned about 15 million MNT from his programs and classes, of which 3/1 or 5 million MNT was returned to the schools for the promotion of cultural heritage. The performer Bayarmagnai has archived the full recording of his performance of epics “Geser” and “Jangar” as DVDs and CDs at the Mongolian National Radio, the National Center for Cultural Heritage, and the Intellectual Property Office.

-“JANGAR-Tuuli comprehensive research and its innovation” (2017-2018) innovation project was successfully implemented. In 2018, the project successfully organized the “World Epics and Jangar” International Scientific Symposium and Epics Festival in Ulaanbaatar.
-In 2019, the 13th Decree of the President of Mongolia on “Promotion of Mongolian Heroic Epics” was issued. According to the decree, the “Golden Torts of Eternity” was performed in the ceremonial hall of the Government House that day. During the Lunar New Year Eve days of 2018 and 2019, it has become a tradition to perform epics at the “Khaan Tuulisiin Urguu (Epic Khan Palace)” and deliver them directly to the public.
-In February 2019, the Government of Mongolia approved Resolution No. 68 on approving the “National Program on Intangible Cultural Heritage”.
-In April 2019, the Minister of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia approved the action plan to implement the “National Program on Intangible Cultural Heritage” by Order A/235. The program is being implemented in 2019-2023.
-The Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences implemented a joint international project “The annotate catalog of traditional motifs of the Mongolian people” (2018-2020) in collaboration with Mongolian-speaking Buryat and Kalmyk scholars in Russia. The joint research project announced by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of Mongolia and the Foundation for Basic Research of the Russian Federation was approved by the Minister of Education, Culture and Science Order No. A / 332 of 2018.
-In 2018, the anthem “King of Legends, Fierce Jangar” was performed.
-The project “Revitalization of Gobi Khalkh Tuuli” implemented by the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Umnugovi Aimag Governor's Office and the Department of Education, Culture and Arts from March 2019 to January 2021 has been completed.
-In 2019, original source of the “Jangar” epic was republished and distributed.
-In 2019, the epic performer B.Bayarmagnai gave a lecture on the master class "Oral culture melody evening".
-A public poll was conducted to identify the heritage practitioners s of the Mongolian epic with a high level of skill, and in 2019 Baatarjav Erdenetsogt, a well-known Mongolian eppic performer, and Baldandorj Avirmed, in 2020, were awarded the state title of “Honored Cultural Worker of Mongolia”.
-According to the “Procedure for awarding monetary prizes to heritage practitioners who have made a significant contribution to the promotion and dissemination of intangible cultural heritage at the national and global levels” approved by the Government of Mongolia, A.Baldandorj was selected as the best heritage practitioner of 2019, and received a prize of 30 million MNT.
-In 2021, the Law on Cultural Heritage Protection was amended.
Published books
-Mongolian epics published by the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences:
-B. Katuu. Depiction of heroes and queens in Mongolian epics.
T.Bayasgalan. Comparative study of variants of “Jangar” epic.
D.Myagmarsuren, A.Alimaa “Jangar and World Epics”
T.Bayasgalan, S.Tsetsenmunkh, H.Gerel. History of the development of Mongolian epic studies.
A.Alimaa, Ch.Zayaasuren, B.Dairiimaa, G.Batmunkh “Mongolian oral wisdom: Umnugovi province”. Editor S. Baigalsaikhan.

1. 2017 “Comprehensive study of JANGAR-Tuuli and its innovation” Total cost - 89 million MNT. (Appendix to the Order No. A \ 247 of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science dated May 30, 2017)
2. “World Epics and Jangar” International Scientific Symposium and Poetry Festival in Ulaanbaatar on September 21-23, 2018. Total cost - 2 million 900 thousand MNT (Annex to Order A\267 of the Minister of Education, Culture and Science, of May 18, 2017)
3. The Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences has implemented an international joint project “The annotate catalog of traditional motifs of the Mongolian people” (2018-2020). The total cost - 15 million MNT.
4. On March 25, 2018, performance of the opera “King of Legends, Fierce Jangar”. 80 million MNT from the state budget.
5. “Revitalization of Gobi Khalkh Tuuli” project implemented from March 2019 to January 2021 in cooperation with the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Umnugovi Province Governor's Office and the Department of Education, Culture and Arts. The total cost, including published books and musical instruments, is $ 60 million.
6. November 18, 2019. Classic source of the “Jangar” epic was published and distributed. Compiled by D.Suriya. Prepared by DAS Twin Foundation, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation. “Superjobs” LLC, 2019. -294?. ISBN 978-9919-22-407-3. The total cost - 80 million MNT. Of this, 30 million MNT was funded by international organizations and 50 million MNT by NGOs.
7. On June 19, 2019, the epic performer B.Bayarmagnai gave a master class on “Oral Culture Melody Evening”. The budget - 1 million MNT.
8. Cost of Mongolian epics published by the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences:
- B. Katuu. Depiction of heroes and queens in Mongolian epics. Ub., Soyombo printing. 2018. -113?. (Published at the author's own expense)
- T.Bayasgalan. Comparative study of variants of “Jangar” epic. Ed. S. Baigalsaikhan. MAS. IL Soyombo Printing LLC. Ub., 2019. 124 x. (Total cost 1 million 700 thousand MNT)
- D.Myagmarsuren, A.Alimaa “Jangar and World Epics” (Proceedings of the International Conference). Ub., 2019. -312x. The budget - 2 million MNT. (Published at the expense of the conference)
- T.Bayasgalan, S.Tsetsenmunkh, H.Gerel. History of the development of Mongolian epic studies. CHINA. National Press Committee. 2019. -645 ?. The budget - 3 million MNT. (Published at the expense of China)
9. In 2019, the Government of Mongolia awarded the epic performer A.Baldandorj 30 million MNT for his significant contribution to the promotion and dissemination of the Mongolian epic heritage at the national and global levels.

A total 364.600,000 MNT or 121,400 $ was spent for safeguarding measures.

-The total cost of Mongolia's “National Intangible Cultural Heritage Program” is currently unclear, which is directly related to the global epidemic and due to the transition to austerity measures, quarantine, and restrictions on public arts and cultural activities. However, in 2019, the Government of Mongolia awarded A.Baldandorj, a Uriankhai epic performer, with an “Honorary Award” and 30 million MNT for his outstanding contribution to the promotion and dissemination of intangible cultural heritage at the national and global levels.
-The innovation project “Comprehensive study of JANGAR-epic and its innovation” is not included in the 2017 report due to its implementation over the years. The project leader, D. Myagmarsuren, died prematurely, which disrupted some project activities. The aim of the project team was to expand the boundaries of the study area to study the situation and interactions between Mongolia and neighboring Turkic-speaking countries. The “Jangar-2017” international research expedition conducted within the framework of the project was selected as one of the 10 best events in the field of Chinese epics.
-The Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences implemented a joint international project “The annotate catalog of traditional motifs of the Mongolian people” (2018-2020) in collaboration with Mongolian-speaking Buryat and Kalmyk scholars in Russia. The total cost is 15,000.0 million MNT. The project is a direct continuation of the project team's “Fund for Ethno-Poetic Constant Folklore of Mongolian Peoples" project implemented by the in 2017-2018. Now there is a need to create an online database of Mongolian epics for all Mongolian ethnic groups. This is because the Buryats, Kalmyks, and Inner Mongolians, who live under the influence of other languages and cultures, have a tendency to forget their language and perform epics. Mongolian scholars have accumulated a wealth of experience working together on these projects, and a specialized team has already been formed to expand this work.
-On March 25, 2018, the opera “King of Legends Fierce Jangar” was performed. There were no operas, dramas or plays based on the “Jangar” epic in Mongolia, but in 2016, a dance play “Baatar Jangar” with 2 chapters and 6 scenes staged by N.Munguntsetseg, a teacher and choreographer at the School of Dance Arts of the University of Arts and Sciences. Prior to that, in 1983, the Kalmyk writer Basanga Baatar Jangar wrote a play “Heaven Land” with 4 chapters and 9 scenes based on the epic, but it was not published. Therefore, the play was original and the budget was sufficient. There was a lack of budget for a children's play staged at the Zavkhan Music and Drama Theater.
-The “Revitalization of Gobi Khalkh Tuul” project implemented by the Institute of Language and Literature, Umnugovi Province Governor's Office and the Department of Education, Culture and Arts has done many things at a relatively low cost, therefore seems to be possible to localize easily. The province pays a lot of attention to cultural heritage and activities, and 2019 has been declared the Year of Culture of the province. Therefore, it is more effective to safeguard, transmit and develop intangible cultural heritage in places where cultural heritage, practitioners and cultural workers can work together.
-In 2019, the master class “Oral Culture Melody Evening” initiated by the epic performer B.Bayarmagnai developed a curriculum for lectures and lessons for schoolchildren, and it is a fruitful work for one person to teach epic poems to teachers and students. There is a need for projects and financial support for such people. In some parts of Mongolia, the infrastructure is not well developed, and practitioners who perform epics in person are not always able to reach distant regions.

In “VISION-2050” Long-term Development Policy of Mongolia, National Action Plan of Government of Mongolia, Guidelines for Development of Mongolia in 2021-2025, “Guidelines for Improving the Laws and Regulations of Mongolia until 2024,” and Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Culture for 2021-2024 incorporates organizing the activities in the field of identification, registration, studying, creation of a registration database, as well as transmitting, distributing, promoting the intangible cultural heritage and supporting, safeguarding, educating, and identifying its practitioners. They aim to support the transmission of traditional knowledge to future generations and provide a system of support and incentives for groups, communities, and practitioners who have established apprenticeship training. A working group has been established and begun to conduct relevant research, to submit an independent law on “Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage” to the State Great Khural in 2023.

The updated safeguarding plan is in line with the above policy documents. The purpose of the plan is:
To update the “Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian Epic” heritage registration and documentation, transmit it through formal and informal training, study, promote, strengthen viability, raise public awareness, and prepare for the transfer from the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding to the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
The objectives of the updated plan are:
- Carry out a detailed study of the “Mongolian epic” heritage element (Khalkh, Barga, Uzemchin, Torguud ethnic epics)
- organization of apprentice trainings,
- strengthening viability;
- raising public awareness,
- promotion and support of practitioners
- continuation of the registration and documentation.

Expected results:
- Reviving and safeguarding of epics of Khalkh, Barga, Uzemchin and Torguud ethnic groups.
- Public awareness will deepen and the number of people interested in the heritage and researchers will increase.
- The activity and attitude of performers will improve, and their positive impact on society will improve.
- The active participation, and valuable opinions of the public, organizations and individuals in the safeguarding and promotion of Tuuli will be improved.
- Improvement in the cultural environment of the epic will improve cultural tourism and research, and increase the value of epic performers.
- There will be quality competition for activities related to epics in the region.
- There will be progress in Tuuli research works.
- The Government of Mongolia, the Ministry of Culture, the Government Implementing Agency Department of Arts and Culture, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Foundation for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage and other governmental and non-governmental organizations, artists, heritage practitioners, students and researchers increase participation and provide all-round policy, organizational, financial and investment support for the implementation of the revised safeguarding plan.

In order to achieve the target results, the following activities will be organized in 2022-2025:

In the field of registration and documentation:
- Documentation of full repertoire of Mongolian epic performers
- Creation an electronic database of Mongolian epics

In the field of research:

- Establishment of a detailed research group based on ethnic groups on the distribution, repertoire and practitioners of the Mongolian Tuuli and creation of a regional map.
- Based on research, evidence, and heritage practitioners, start the revitalization of 2-4 epics in 2-3 ethnic groups with their participation.
- Publication of scientific research papers
- Establishment of a regional fund to support epic performers by organizing nature-cultural-educational tours along the “Tuuli Road”. Conduct international scientific conferences and local consultations (expand regional relations in order to establish the space of the Mongolian epics, and close to neighboring and linguistically, culturally and ethnically close Buryats, Kalmyks, Inner Mongolians, Tuva, Altai, Khakassia, Yakutia, Kyrgyzstan. Due to the fact that the heroic epics of the Mongolian and Turkic-speaking peoples are of the same ethnicity and branch out from each other, the epic culture is similar in many respects, such as identity, difference, structure, content, ideas, melting methods, culture, safeguarding, education and promotion, it will provide a wide range of opportunities to explore, learn, and safeguard together.
- Organize a local epic performers' consultation meeting.
In the field of advertising:
- Create a cartoon to promote the Mongolian epics to children and youth.
- Organize the “Central Asian Epics” International Festival (Traditionally, the “Central Asian Epics” International Symposium and Festival will be organized in the region under the auspices of the President of Mongolia).
- Announce a competition among artists to create contents based on Mongolian epics and support cultural production, and increase the repertoire of epic performers
- Organize exhibitions and publish compilations of materials on epics archived abroad
- Promote epic performers through a series of programs in the media and on television
- Announce a competition among artists to create content on epics (with the aim of re-introducing the epic heritage element, and repertoire of epics to the general public and ethnic groups, to strengthen beliefs, and to promote)
In the field of training:

- Organize apprenticeship training programs and trainings with three best performers
- Include non-governmental organizations and citizens working in the field of Tuuli in trainings to support and provide methodological support

Support and assistance:
- Solve social problems of epics performers (distinguishing badge)
- To support non-governmental organizations and citizens' associations operating in the field of Tuuli
- In order to support rural performers, to solve and facilitate social issues, to make two documentaries about them and to promote them internationally.

Monitoring:

- In 2022-2025, the monitoring of the heritage “Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian Epic” will be done by comparing it with the annual safeguarding and protection activities, especially the quality of apprenticeship and the number of heritage practitioners, the viability of the heritage shall be determined and reflected in future safeguarding measures.

1. Establishment of a detailed research group based on ethnic groups on the distribution, repertoire and practitioners of the Mongolian Tuuli and creation of a regional map in 2022. A total budget 8000$.
2. Based on research, evidence, and heritage practitioners, start the revitalization of 2-4 epics in 2-3 ethnic groups with their participation in 2022-2023. A total budget 7000$.
3. Create a cartoon to promote the Mongolian epic to children and youth in 2022. Budget 3500$.
4. Organize apprenticeship training programs and trainings with three best performers in 2022. Budget 9000$.
5. Include non-governmental organizations and citizens working in the field of Tuuli in trainings to support and provide methodological support in 2022. Budget 2000$.
6. Hold a local epic performers' First consultation meeting in 2023. Budget 8000$.
7. “Organize the “Central Asian Epics” International Festival. 2023. Budget 7000$.
8. Promote epic performers through a series of programs in the media and on television in 2023. Budget 3000$.
9. Establishment of a regional fund to support epic performers by organizing nature-cultural-educational tours along the “Tuuli Road” in 2022-2024. Budget 5000$.
10. Announce a competition among artists to create contents based on Mongolian epics, support cultural industry, and increase the repertoire of epic performers in 2023-2024. Budget 6000$.
11. Create a digital database of the Mongolian epics in 2022-2024. Budget 1900$.
12. Organize exhibitions and publish compilations of materials on epics archived abroad in 2024. Budget 5000$.
13. Publication of scientific research papers in 2024. Budget 5000$.
14. In order to support rural performers, to solve and facilitate social issues, to make two documentaries about them and to promote them internationally in 2025. Budget 5600$.
15. Documentation of the full repertoire of Mongolian epic performers in 2022-2025. Budget 2000$.
16. Solve social issue of epics performers (distinguishing badge) in 2022-2025. Budget 2000$.
17. Monitoring in 2022-2025. Budget 5000$.

The revised safeguarding plan was developed by the Ministry of Culture, the National Center for Cultural Heritage, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Department of Culture and Arts of the Government Implementation Agency, senior and young heritage practitioners, and relevant government officials, including opinions of organizations, scholars, in accordance with the policy documents such as the “Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage”, long-term development policy document of Mongolia VISION -2050, the Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia, the Guidelines for the Development of Mongolia for 2021-2025, the Guidelines for Improving the Legislation of Mongolia until 2024, and the Strategic Plan for 2021-2024 of the Ministry of Culture.
The Ministry of Culture will create a favorable legal environment, formulate policies, allocate and monitor the necessary budgets in the state budget, and provide guidance and methodologies for the implementation of national activities by the Government of Mongolia. The National Center for Cultural Heritage will work with trainers and heritage practitioners in 21 provinces and 9 districts to organize safeguarding activities, as well as national inventory, festivals and academic conferences.
The activities included in the plan shall be organized in consultation and jointly with the organizations, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, researchers and the public whose functions are specified in the Law on Cultural Heritage Protection.
Heritage practitioners are responsible for disseminating, promoting, and transmitting the heritage element and are actively involved in other safeguarding plans.
Research institutes and individual researchers will be involved. NGOs operating abroad will be contacted to search for opportunities to teach epics and conduct student trainings online, to safeguard their knowledge on the native language.
It is important to note that the number of NGOs that allow epic performers to initiate and work in this field is small, and their activities are not regular, even though they are registered in the country.
Artists will be encouraged to work together to promote Mongolian epics, develop content and cultural industries.
Cooperation with foreign researchers, performers and related organizations will be developed.

a. Ministry of Culture, Mongolia
Address: Ministry of Culture of Mongolia, Sukhbaatar district, 7th sub-district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Byambasuren DAVAATSEREN
Director of Cultural Heritage Department
Phone: + 976- 51-265609
Fax: 976-
Email: davaatseren@moc.gov.mn
Web:moc.gov.mn
Email: info@moc.gov.mn
Tserendorj TSOLMON
Coordination Officer for Policy Implementation of Intangible Cultural Heritage
Phone: + 976- 51-265617
Fax: 976-
Email: tsolmon@moc.gov.mn
Phone: + 976- 99057308

National Center for Cultural Heritage
Address: Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Khan-Uul district, 21st khoroo, Buyant Ukhaa 2 district,
Galbadrakh ENKHBAT
Director National Cultural Heritage Center
Phone: + 976-99168200
+ 976- 70110877
Fax: 976-11-312735
Email: enkhbatcch@gmail.com info@ncch.gov.mn
Web: http://ncch.gov.mm/

Arslan SARUUL
Specialist in charge of World Heritage Sites, Department for Protection and Rescue of Cultural Heritage in Emergency Situation in National Center for Cultural Heritage
Phone: + 976- 99030405
Email: saku_tuntic@yahoo.com

Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO

Khoskhuu IDER
Programme Specialist for Culture
Phone: + 976-70105652
+ 976-95959542
Fax: 976-11-322612
Email: kh.ider@unesco.mn

“?ongol Tuuli” NGO
Head: Avirmed BALDANDORJ
Phone: + 976-88908226

In writing this report, we met with experts from the State Language Council under the Office of the President of Mongolia, the Ministry of Culture, the Government Implementing Agency Department of Culture and Arts, the National Center for Cultural Heritage, and other organizations to review legal and related documents, and to make copies.
By the order of the Minister of Culture of Mongolia No. A / 73 of 2021 “On the establishment of a working group”, a working group was established to develop and prepare the “Periodic Report on Cultural Heritage in Need of the Urgent Safeguarding”. These include representatives from the Ministry of Culture, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Government Implementing Agency for Culture and Arts, and the National Center for Cultural Heritage, World Heritage - Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and the surrounding sacred landscape administration office, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO and related researchers. For example, A. Alimaa (the Institute of Linguistics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences), A. Baldandorj (“Mongol Tuul” NGO), A.Badamkhand (Umnugovi province), and the performer Ulzii Batjargal participated in person.

Specialists from 21 provinces and soums of Mongolia, Khovd and Uvs provinces' Music and Drama Theater, and Umnugovi province's Department of Culture and Arts were contacted by telephone. Related reports and materials were submitted by e-mail.

The team met with representatives of two non-governmental and public organizations, "Mongol Tuuli" (headed by A.Baldandorj) and "Das Twin Fund" (headed by S.Narankhuu). Existence of other Tuuli related NGOs inquired.

During the preparation of the report, personal and telephone interviews were made regarding revival of the Khalkha Tuuli, with such heritage practitioners as A.Baldandorj, Bokoonii Bold, and representatives of Khalkha epic performers Batjargal Ulzii, Dashvasamba Jargal, and Myagmarsuren Badamsuren.

Name

NOMIN Chinbat

Title

Minister of Culture, Mongolia

Date

10-12-2021

Signature

NOMIN Chinbat

Name of State Party

Mongolia

2005-06-29

Name of element

Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian epic

Inscribed in

2009

Coaxing ritual for camels (2015)
Folk long song performance technique of Limbe performances - circular breathing (2011)
Mongol Biyelgee, Mongolian traditional folk dance (2009)
Mongolian calligraphy (2013)
Mongolian traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites (2017)
Traditional music of the Tsuur (2009)

After the inscription of the “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” into the UNESCO List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, the Government of Mongolia has implemented the long-term and medium-term safeguarding measures and projects for identifying the epic practitioners, to create the registration and information database, to research and promote, and to transmit to the young generations by apprenticeship training. The existence capability of Mongol Epic tradition has strengthened and its range of dissemination and condition has improved, as a result of the consecutive activities taken for the safeguarding, for instance; in order to safeguard the tradition of Mongol epic urgently to revitalize and disseminate the “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” in its original setting / places as including Altain Uriankhai, Dorvod, Bayad ethnics in western Mongolia, and Khalkh ethnic in central Mongolia; and to build a social environment that supports the epic singers and associated custom to Epic tradition.
Within the periodic reporting timeframe between 2014 and 2017, the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (old name), the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (old name), the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports of Mongolia (present name), and the National Center for Cultural Heritage have implemented the several activities in cooperation with the Institute of Language and Literature under the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, the Association of Mongol Epic Singers, and epic practitioners and its community for expanding the formal and informal trainings in Ulaanbaatar city and local area; identifying, familiarizing and supporting epic practitioners, and research and promotion were prioritized in this work. As for including:
- The National Project “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” has successfully implemented between 2012 and 2015, by the 357th Decision by the Government of Mongolia in adopted on December 16th of 2011.
- The project “Safeguarding and revitalizing the Mongolian traditional epic” has successfully implemented between 2013 and 2016 by the Intangible Cultural Heritage Fund of UNESCO.
- “The Palace of Khaan Epic” has established at the Bogd Khaan Palace Museum by the support of the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Mongolia for organizing training, promoting to the domestic and international tourists, and building environment where the apprenticeship training can be held.
- By the initiatives of the Presidium of Citizen’s Representative Khural and Local Administration of Khovd and Uvs provinces, 2 times scientific conference and competition “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” has organized on the studies of Epic repertoire, by cooperation with the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports of Mongolia, the National Center for Cultural Heritage, and Mongolian Academy of Sciences.
- In accordance with the regulation for identifying the “Best Artist of the Year” approved by the 195th Decision of the Government of Mongolia in 2008, the celebration/award has been organized for evaluating and familiarizing the best artists of Mongolia. In 2014, there was new nomination/place “Best practitioner of ICH” came, and epic singer A.Baldandorj has won this prize in 2015.
- Within the framework of the Memorandum of Understanding between the National Center for Cultural Heritage and the Mongolian National Broadcasting, and in cooperation with broadcasting program “Culture and Heritage”, total 45 series of the documentary program have done for 5 main epics and distributed to the public.
- The Office of the President of Mongolia has supported the publishing of the CD “Mongolian epic masterpieces” by epic singer A.Baldandorj and distributed to the public.
As a result of the aforementioned activities, people’s awareness and knowledge associated with the epic, and public involvement in the safeguarding of epic tradition has increased. Additionally, the capability of the existence of Uriankhai epic has strengthened, and Dorvod and Bayad epic have revitalized.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Ms

Family name

Arslan

Given name

Saruul

Institution/position

Division of Intangible Cultural Heritage Center for Cultural Heritage

Address

Central Palace of Culture B
Sukhbaatar square 3
Ulaanbaatar 210620a
1st khooro
P.B.-269
Ulaanbaatar 210648

Telephone number

+976 99099842; +976 99030405

E-mail address

ichfr@monheritage.mn

Other relevant information

The literary form and composition of Epic give it a huge space in the Mongolian folk literature, and it is a specific type of oral poetry that expresses the language, history, culture, custom, worship, and aesthetic of Mongolians completely.
According to the 2nd Article of the UNESCO 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, the “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” belongs to the domain “oral traditions and expressions, including language as a vehicle of the intangible cultural heritage”, and related to the singing of the epic it belongs to the domain “performing arts” and domain “social practices, rituals and festive events”. Nowadays, it is possible to see and get the knowledge of the ancient Mongolians custom associated with the marriage, the friendship, celebration, the war, the hunting, herding horses from Mongol epic, besides this it is able to know about their worship to the nature /respect, harmony to the nature/ and view of the universe.
The Epic is a significant subject in the linguistic science, as because the poet of Epic covers all the types of literature including story, myth, praise, well-wishing, benediction, folk saying, incantation, and besides this, the dialects of ethnic groups are well preserved in it. Therefore, 50 to 60 percent of Mongolist scholars of the world study the epic.
Nowadays, writers, artists, and fashion designers are getting motivations and inspiration of their artwork from the narratives of Epic, and depictions of costumes, palaces, and artifacts said in the epic.
The Epic is being a creativity in the artworks of artists from generation to generation and developed as a living culture, and continuously transmitted, and giving a contribution to the protection and supporting the cultural diversity of the world.
The Mongol Epic is inseparable connections with the custom, psychology, language, and culture of Mongolians, and it supports and creates a pleased and satisfied life, and also being one of the important condition and positive factors in the harmonious life and developing sustainably. Symbolizing the best part of the human relationship to other is the main objective of the Mongol Epic and it well suits to the main concepts of the human right declaration, and the concept of respectfulness between humankind, and also the sustainable development goals.

Although over 230 written sources of epic have preserved and used in research by foreign and Mongolian scholars from the end of the 19th century, the tradition of the Mongol epic came under the edge of extinction in the end of 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Indeed the inscription of the “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” into the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding gave a huge contribution to the safeguarding of Epic repertoire and revitalizing the tradition of epic singing as its original version.
Aforementioned 230 epics and its way of singing and tradition can be classified as follows; for instance, the tradition of Uriankhai epic by Jilker descendant, the tradition by Uriankhai epic singer S.Choisuren, tradition by Dorvod epic singer Zodov, the tradition by Bayad epic singer Sh.Nyamaa, and the tradition of Khalkh epic. As of today, more than half of the present practitioners and epic singers are from the Uriankhai ethnic group, and from the result of the National Project “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic”, and the project “Safeguarding and revitalizing the Mongolian traditional epic” implemented by UNESCO, it is able to view that the tradition of the Uriankhai epic will be transmitted to the young generation continuously, and its existence capability has already strengthened. For the tradition of Dorvod, Bayad, and Khalkh epic, only one or two epic singers are singing these epics as its traditional way and it is being one of the matter to worry. For instance: the tradition of Zakhchin epic is now in the edge of the extinction due to the loss of epic singer T.Enkhbalsan in 2006, who was one of the last few epic singers of Zakhchin epic.
Although, there are several positive attitudes came to the safeguarding of the epic tradition, there are still some risks existing that can be harmful to the capability of the existence of the Mongol epic. As for including:
-the traditional setting, space, and condition of epic singing are diminished day by day due to melting pot caused by globalization, urbanization and sedentary culture.
-Due to the dramatic changes in the life rhythm/style, the number of audiences who spend the several nights for listening to the epic has decreased, and small of part of the epic is performed in the concert for just decoration.
In order to overcome these risks, it is necessary to stabilize and enhance the implementation of the present activities and to increase its financial support.

Objectives
Within the objectives of the National Project (2012-2015):
Objective 1. To safeguard the Mongol Epic for preventing from extinction, and to promote to the public
Objective 2. To direct the cultural activities into the creation of the legal and management environment for the transmission of Mongol Epic to the young generation, and associated research and promotion of it.
Objective 3. To identify and familiarize epic singers, to give accurate support to carry out the apprenticeship training.
Within the frame of the project “Safeguarding and revitalizing the Mongolian traditional epic” by UNESCO between 2013 and 2016:
Objective 1. To organize the scientific conference and symposium between epic singers, practitioners, scholars, and specialists on the safeguarding and revitalization of Epic, and to protect the capability of the existence of Epic tradition.
Objective 2. In order to see the present level of Mongol Epic tradition, to organize a competition for epic singers for examining their skill and repertoire.
Objective 3. To show the revitalization process of epic in its original setting through the demonstration to the scholars, amateurs, and apprentices.
Objective 4. To organize the apprenticeship training on Epic, and to provide with financial support, and to provide the living guarantee for epic singers and practitioners.
Objective 5. To familiarize epic singers, and to promote them through TVs, radios, and Medias.
Objective 6. To publish DV, DVD and to make documentary on Mongol Epic, and its singers
Objective 7. To re-publish the videos, films and archival materials of well-known epic singers, and distribute it to the public, and use it for the training and promotion.
Objective 8. To deepen the research and studies on the repertoire of Mongol Epic, its distribution, associated rituals, melody, rhythm, accompanied musical instruments, biography, repertoire, and skill of epic singers.
Objective 9. To publish the volumes of book
Results
1. The registration and information database of Mongol epic, integrated list of the epic singer, practitioners, and its apprentices, and general database of repertoire has created.
2. Epics of the Dorvod and Bayad ethnic has revitalized in its original region when it was forgotten and were on the edge of extinction.
3. The tradition of Mongol Epic has revitalized, and the permanent system of protection, development, training, research, and promotion has created.
4. Skill and repertoire of Epic singers and practitioners have increased as a result of organized contests, competitions, and festivals in local, regional and national level.
5. As a result of the organized apprenticeship training for strengthening the continuity of Epic tradition, the number of epic singers, practitioners, amateur epic singers has increased.
6. The framework of Epic has expanded, and the number of young epic singers and young epic researchers has increased.
7. Public involvement in the protection and revitalization of Mongol Epic has increased.

Within the framework of organization of apprenticeship training:
- “The Palace of Khaan Epic” has established in 2014 at the Bogd Khaan Palace Museum by the support of the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Mongolia for organizing training, promoting to the domestic and international tourists, and building environment where the apprenticeship training can be held.
- Within the frame of the project “Safeguarding and revitalizing the Mongolian traditional epic” implemented by the National Center for Cultural Heritage by the support of UNESCO between 2013 and 2016, the center has made a contract with 9 epic singers for organizing the apprenticeship training, and the contract outcome has evaluated by the concert. As for including:
? 3 apprentices were trained by epic singer, herder I.Nergui from Khovd soum of Uvs province. One of his apprentices, I.Togsoo is learning the tradition of the Dorvod Epic according to the tradition of the Dorvod Epic singer Ts.Zodov is one of the examples that show the revitalization of Dorvod epic.
? 4 apprentices were trained by State Honored Artist, and Khalkh epic singer D.Olzii in his 80 years old,
? 3 apprentices were trained by epic singer E.Baatarjav,
? 2 apprentices were trained by B.Bayarmagnai elder epic singer,
? 3 apprentices were trained by young epic singer A.Baldandorj, who is a son of the State honored epic singer B.Avirmed
? 3 apprentices were trained by Z. Chuluunbaatar, folklorist of Dornogovi province, and a Khalkh epic singer, and ??????, ????????
? 3 apprentices were trained by epic singer, herder N.Ankhbayar from Naranbulag soum of Uvs province.
? One apprentice trained by folklorist, epic singer and Tsuur musician B.Bold from Bayan-Olgii province.
? 7 apprentices were trained by folklorist, epic singer and Tsuur musician from Duut soum of Khovd province. Within the timeframe of the project, total 29 apprentices of epic singers were trained.
Competitions and festivals for Epic singers:
- In 2015, meeting and concert for epic singers and its apprentices has organized at Ulaanbaatar city.
- In 2015, the festival “Mongol Epic” and the scientific conference “Studies on the Repertoire of the Epic Singer B.Avirmed” have organized at Khovd province, by cooperation with MECSS, the National Center for Cultural Heritage, and the Presidium of Citizen’s Representative Khural and Local Administration of the Khovd Province for the 80th Anniversary of well-known epic singer B.Avirmed (1935-1998) aiming to immortalize, to study and promote the specific of his repertoire, and to transmit the Epic tradition to the young generation, and to introduce to the public. In addition, the statue was erected for him. In the conference, total 11 epic singers and their 24 apprentices have performed and the places and prizes were given to them. Additionally, 13 scholars have taken their presentations in the conference.
- In 2015, the international scientific conference “The Studies of Jangar” has organized in Ulaangom city of Uvs province by cooperation with “Tod using” NGO, MECSS, Presidium of Citizen’s Representative Khural and Local Administration of the Uvs Province. In this conference, total 27 presentations have taken by scholars and researchers from the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of China, Khalimag Republic and the Altai Republic of Russian Federation, and Mongolia.
- In 2016, the scientific conference “The Studies on the Repertoire of Epic Singer Parchin” has organized in Uvs province for the 100th Anniversary of well-known epic singer Parchin, by cooperation with the Institute of Language and Literature under the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Presidium of Citizen’s Representative Khural and Local Administration of the Uvs Province.
Within the framework of raising awareness and involvement of the public, and promoting and familiarizing:
- In 2013, 2 episodes documentary the “Owners of the Altai” and “Epic of Altai Uriankhai” has made for showing the biography of epic singers of Jilker descendant, and 500 copies were distributed.
- Within the frame of the project “Safeguarding and revitalizing the Mongolian traditional epic” implemented by the National Center for Cultural Heritage by the support of UNESCO between 2013 and 2016, total 12 volumes of the book (each volume 1000 copies) published for entertaining and educating public with knowledge of the Epic and distributed to the cultural and arts universities, libraries in Ulaanbaatar city, provinces and sums.
- In accordance with the regulation for identifying the “Best Artist of the Year” approved by the 195th Decision of the Government of Mongolia in 2008, the celebration/award has been organized for evaluating and familiarizing the best artists of Mongolia. In 2014, there was new nomination/place “Best practitioner of ICH” came, and epic singer A.Baldandorj has won this prize in 2015.
- 4 times full-length of TV program and “Mongol Epic” short entertaining documentary has made for disseminating and promoting the Mongol Epic and its practitioners and broadcasted by Mongolian National Broadcasting and Olloo TVs.
- Additionally, the National Center for Cultural Heritage and the TV program “Culture and Heritage” of Mongolian National Broadcasting have made 45 series of TV program for 5 main epics between 2015 and 2017 and broadcasted to the public.
In 2016, the Office of the President of Mongolia has supported the publishing of the CD “Mongolian epic masterpieces” by epic singer A.Baldandorj and distributed to the public

In the 34th Article of the Law on the Protection of Cultural Heritage, the rights and obligations of ICH practitioners have described first time, for instance, the right of ICH practitioner described on the Article 34.1.1 as; “to receive a financial support in urgent cases to safeguard, transmit and revitalize the ICH elements”, and the obligation of ICH practitioner described as; “to transmit the ICH elements to the young generations, to train apprentices, to disseminate and promote the ICH elements, to give assistance in the registration, and collection of information associated with ICH elements”.
Aiming to safeguard the tradition of Mongol Epic, to transmit it to the public, and to research and promote, the epic singers, practitioners are actively involving in the activities that related to safeguarding, revitalization, transmission, research and promoting the epic by media, TVs, and radios.
For instance, following epic singers and practitioners are actively involving and spending their efforts in the apprenticeship training, contest, festivals, research, raising awareness of public, education activities. As for including:
Nyamaa Ankhbayar /43 years old, Bayad/, Erdentsogt Baatarjav /45 years old, Uriankhai/, Lkhamjav Baatarkhuu /29 years old, Uriankhai/, Avirmed Baldandorj /39 years old, Uriankhai/, Bazarjav Bayarmagnai /61 years old, Khotgoid/, Bokoo Bold /46 years old, Altain Uriankhai/, Natsag Damdindorj /51 years old, Uriankhai/, Enkhee Mendbayar /27 years old, Altai Uriankhai/, Shadrav Punsantsogvoo /55 years old, Dorvod/, Dandar Olzii /78 years old, Khalkh/, Khoovch Seseer /65 years old, Uriankhai/, I. Nergui /50 years old, Dorvod/.
Most of these epic singers are bore their skill and knowledge from their ancestors/families, and are accepted among the elder epic singers and public, and are bearing the skill and knowledge of Mongol epic in modern days. “Mongol Epic” NGO is working for safeguarding the Mongol epic and transmit it to the young generation.

The Law on the Protection of Cultural Heritage, Mongolia has amended in 2014 by the State Great Khural, and its amendments brought the possibilities to spend money from the local budget for the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage. For instance:
On the 41st Article, it is mentioned that: activities for the protection of cultural heritage shall be financed by the state budget, local budget, assistance, donations and funds provided by Mongolian and foreign citizens, as well as legal entities and international organizations, and other resources. On the 13.1.13th Article, it is mentioned that: the state will finance the measures to be taken related to nominating the cultural heritage to the World Heritage List, and safeguarding, transmission, dissemination of cultural heritage listed in the World Heritage List within the annual state budget. The 15th Article of the Law is about the common authority given to the Citizen’s Representative Khural of Province, Ulaanbaatar city, soum and district for protection of cultural heritage. For instance, on the Article 15.1.1, it is mentioned that: to provide the implementation of legislation concerning the protection of cultural heritage, to develop plan and programmes for implementation, and to monitor and approve the necessary budget in the implementation. The Article 16 is about the authority of Governors of Provinces and Ulaanbaatar city. On the Article 16.1.12, it is mentioned that: to search and identify practitioners of intangible cultural heritage and to provide publicity, assistance and organize activities of transmission.
Based on the aforementioned articles on the Law, the Minister of Culture, Sports, and Tourism has approved the 357th Decision for implementing the National Project “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” between 2012 and 2015, and spent total 143.6 million tugrugs into it.
According to the 15th Article of the art on the Protection of Cultural Heritage, the Khovd and Uvs provinces have taken the several safeguarding measures for the Epic by their budget between 2014 and 2017.
Additionally, total 87000 US dollar has spent to the project “Safeguarding and revitalizing the Mongolian traditional epic” between 2013 and 2016 by UNESCO.

As a result of the implementation of the National Project “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” between 2012 and 2015, and the UNESCO project “Safeguarding and revitalizing the Mongolian traditional epic” between 2013 and 2016, people and young generations have provided with knowledge related to epic before who weren't had any understanding, and the range of the apprenticeship training has expanded. Additionally, these projects played a significant role in the revitalization, research, and the documentation that prevents from the extinction of epic tradition, a specific culture of western Mongolia well-known as its epic and epic singers including Khalkh, Uriankhai, Zakhchin, Dorvod, Bayad ethnics.
The number of epic singers, amateurs, and scholars of epic has increased. When making the inventory in 2009, for nominating the “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” to the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, there was 7 to 8 epic singers, practitioners have registered, but today, there are 12 epic singers and practitioners have registered from Uriankhai, Bayadm Khalkh and Dorvod, and over 30 apprentices who are learning the tradition of this elements has registered.
Epic singers started pride their heritage element and had initiatives to improve their skill and repertoire of epic.
Social value and status of Mongol epic have increased, and the use of ritual associated with epic and involvement of epic singers have increased in the national and local ceremony and events.
The awareness of public on the Epic and epic singer has increased, and public involvement in the safeguarding of epic, and its associated rituals have improved. Additionally, the project “Safeguarding and revitalizing the Mongolian traditional epic” played a significant role to revitalize the epic tradition, and to increase the number of epic singers, and to strengthen the continuity of epic tradition and boosted the immune for further sustainable development and transmission of epic. As a result of this project, the tradition of Dorvod and Bayad epic has revitalized, which were on the edge of extinction due to forgotten.
As of today, total 10000 photographs, 79 videotapes, 2770 hours HD video documentation associated with Epic tradition, 50 epic practitioner’s registration and information have kept in the State Registration and Information Database of Cultural Heritage.

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports of Mongolia is elaborating the complex “National Project for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage 2018-2015”, aiming to safeguard the tradition of Mongol Epic as its original version and to strengthen its capability of existence. In the project, it is reflected that to make research and studies on each domain/type of ICH elements, to organize training, to implement related projects, and to provide the further capability of existence, and also spend some amount of budget to the aforementioned activities. As for including:
- To carry out the research of ICH and its practitioners in association with local history, culture, customs and living conditions.
- To enrich the Registration and information database of cultural heritage, and to develop and convert the information into modern technology, and to improve the distribution to the public.
- To organize formal, informal, apprenticeship training in Intangible Cultural Heritage.
- To create the training facilities combined the theoretical and practical knowledge of ICH (ICH practitioners, cultural officers, and related fields)
- To support ICH practitioners, and improve their social value and status
- To improve/develop the legal environment that supports the Intangible Cultural Heritage reflection and development within the cultural creative industry.
- To train, re-train and to specialize ICH officers.
Following prioritized objectives will be fulfilled within the frame of this complex National Project, for instance; to provide with a lifetime guarantee and social welfare of epic singers, and to improve the legal and economic conditions in order to create the system that provides salary to the epic singers.
The National Project has reflected the initiatives and comments from scholars, researchers and non-governmental organizations based on epic singers, practitioners, individuals and community people.
According to the Decision by the Government of Mongolia, total 500 million tugrugs to be spent on this National Project. Besides this, it is necessary to get the supports from the local administrations, international organizations, and national manufacturers, and implement the projects with supports of them.
Within the periodic reporting year between 2018 and 2021, Mongolia is planning to strengthen the capability of existence of the tradition of Dorvod, Bayad and Khalkh epics, and to revitalize the tradition of the Zakhchin epic.

Aiming to safeguard the tradition of Mongol Epic, to transmit it to the public, and to research and promote, the epic singers, practitioners are actively involving in the activities that related to safeguarding, revitalization, transmission, research and promoting the epic by media, TVs, and radios.
For instance: Uriankhai epic singer N.Damdindorj from Duut soum, Kh.Seseer from Jargalant soum of Khovd province, Dorvod epic singer Sh.Punsantsogvoo from Sagil soum of Uvs province, Khalkh epic singer D.Olzii are giving their contribution to the transmission of epic tradition to the young generation. Uriankhai epic singers E.Baatarjav, A.Baldandirj, B.Bayarmagnai are promoting the Mongol Epic to the international level.
“Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” NGO is working for safeguarding the Mongol epic and transmit it to the young generation.

?. The National Center for Cultural Heritage (under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science, and Sports of Mongolia)
Address: Center for Cultural Heritage, Central Palace of Culture “B” section, Jaymiyan Street, Sukhbaatar sq 3, Sukhbaatar district, Ulaanbaatar, 21 06 20?, Mongolia.
P.O.Box: Sukhbaatar sq 3, Sukhbaatar district, Ulaanbaatar, 21 06 20?, Mongolia
Director: G.ENKHBAT.
Tel: + 976-11-312-735
+ 976- 70110877
Fax: 976-11-312735
?mail: cch@monheritage.mn
Web: www.monheritage.mn
Organization: Head of the Division for Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage at the National Center for Cultural Heritage: A.Saruul
????: + 976-99030405.
E-mail: saku_tuntic@yahoo.com
?. “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” NGO
/The NGO works for transmission, promotion, and demonstration of Mongol Epic to the young generation. Director of NGO: A.Baldandorj/
Address: Surguuliin A-5-60, 23rd khoroo, Bayanzurkh district
Tel: + 976-9490 0904
+ 976-9924 2363
Fax: 976-7015 4576
E-mail: baldaa_04@yahoo.com

The working group for the writing of this periodic reporting has established based on the A/192 Decree by the Minister of Education, Culture, Science and Sports of Mongolia in 2017, adapted for establishing the working group for the writing of the periodic reports on: “The Report of Government of Mongolia on the Implementation of UNESCO 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage” and “The Periodic Report on the Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding”.
Following individuals, governmental and non-governmental organizations have involved in the writing of this periodic reporting of “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic”, as including: the National Center for Cultural Heritage under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports of Mongolia, “Mongol Tuuli, Mongol Epic” NGO, scholar S.Yundenbat, Ts.Tsendsuren, B.Katuu.

Name

TS. TSOGZOLMAA

Title

MINISTER OF EDUCATION, CULTURE, SCIENCE AND SPORTS

Date

30-11-2017

Signature

Signed

Name of State Party

Mongolia

29-06-2005

Name of element

Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian epic

Inscribed in

2009

2009 -

Coaxing ritual for camel calves (2011)
Coaxing ritual for camels (2015)
Folk long song performance technique of Limbe performances - circular breathing (2011)
Mongol Biyelgee, Mongolian traditional folk dance (2009)
Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian epic (2009)
Mongolian calligraphy (2011)
Mongolian calligraphy (2013)
Mongolian traditional Cham dance (2011)
Mongolian Traditional Cham Dance (-)
Mongolian traditional practices of the worshipping of sacred sites (2011)
Mongolian traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites (2017)
Performance of the Mongolian epic of Jangar (2011)
The art of steel carving (backlog)
Traditional music of the Tsuur (2009)

The epic is a living oral expression that is crucial for the cultural identity of the Mongolian people and for the historical continuity of their nomadic lifestyle. The Mongolian epic plays an important role in the traditional education of younger people living in the communities where it is performed. Mongolian epic performers continue to attach great importance to performing the epic within traditional contexts and in sacred settings, and endeavor to transmit performing techniques to the younger generation in the manner learned from their ancestors.
Therefore National safeguarding plan of the Mongolian epic was developed from a careful analysis of urgent needs and long-term goals, emphasizes training young performers in order to sustain intergenerational transmission, while strengthening the status accorded to epics and their performers and revitalizing the traditional ritual contexts of performance.
Under the support of this Plan the coherent set of safeguarding measures are implemented with aims to revitalize and safeguard the epic, ensure its viability and sustainability, such as conducting traditional apprenticeship-training courses, organizing various public events such as exhibitions, festivals or seminars.
During the report period following protection activities accomplished by the Government body, local government body and NGOs:
1. Between 2011-2012 we have organized local and nationwide competitions among the storytellers and bearers. Also evaluated their ability and repertory and granted and glorified them as disseminating their work.
2. 2011-2012 we accomplished the project of training apprentices based on traditional manner of senior singers experiences in order to strengthen and encourage the epic performance and inherit the epic knowledge and talent into the future generations.
3. 2009-2012 we published several research based books which included study of epics, biography of famous epic story tellers and the epics that they used to tell, in order to study the art of epics in scientific way.
4. In 2011 we have organized a conference on epic study and biography of famous epic story tellers.
5. We organized some activities for "Apprentice training" which aimed to get financial support in order to increase social value of epic storytellers, to grant them, and to make them popular.
6. We made documentary movie, television programs, published CD, photo exhibition about this topic through media in order to propagate, popularize and disseminate art of epic in the society.
In results of these projects implementation:
1. Social knowledge about art of epic has improved and their participation of safeguarding epic has increased.
2. Number of the researchers and amateurs on art of epic increased. There were total 7 to 8 people registered in Mongolia as a epic story tellers in 2009, by the time when we were making research to get register “Mongolian Epic” in UNESCO’s Intangible cultural heritage in need of urgent safeguarding list. But now there are more than 20 talented people who got that official title “Epic Storyteller” and they are inheriting this scarce and precious heritage. They all represent the tribes called Urianhai, Bayad, Durvud and Khalha
3. Epic storytellers started to have more pride on what they inherited till today and they became more initiative to improve their ability and add on in their repertory.
4. Value of social view on art of epic has improved and number of the participants on local and national competitions about epic art has dramatically increased.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Mr

Family name

Jargalsaikhan

Given name

Tsoodol

Institution/position

Head of the ICH division

Address

Center for Cultural Heritage, Cultural Palace B, Sukhbaatar square 3, Sukhbaatar District, Ulaanbaatar 210620a, Mongolia

Telephone number

+976-11-312735

Fax number

E-mail address

tsjargalsaikhan@monheritage.mn; ichfr@monheritage.mn

Other relevant information

The Mongolian Tuuli – oral tradition recounts heroic epics from Mongolian history. Evolving over a span of many centuries to eulogize and immortalize Mongolian heroes, these epics constitute an oral encyclopedia of national histories, myths, legends and folk songs. Epics are learnt by rote and transmitted from fathers to sons within kinship circle. Currently there are only about ten epic performers living in the remote western region of Mongolia who maintain and transmit these Tuuli performing traditions. Today, they survive only in the western region and the capital city, Ulaanbaatar.
The Mongolian epic stories could be divided into several traditional ways depends on its way of telling and rules. These are; Tradition of Jilker’s family’s Urianhai epic storytellers, Urianhai’s epic storyteller S.Choisuren’s tradition, Dorvod’s epic storyteller Zodov’s tradition, Bayad’s epic storyteller Sh.Nyamaa’s tradition and Khalha’s tradition. More than a half of the epic story inheritors are from Urianhai tribe and this information is giving us a hope of successful inheritance of Urianhai epic story telling tradition. There is only one or two storytellers are left in some traditions and it is bringing us fear. For example: The last inheritor of Zakhchin epic story, T.Enkhbalsan died in 2006. Since then that tradition hasn’t inherited to the next generation and it might get lost forever.
Epic singers are renowned for their remarkable memory, imagination and commitment. Professional singers traditionally perform specific epics during social and public events, such as state affairs, wedding ceremonies, the Naadam festival, a child’s first haircut, hunting expeditions and the worship of sacred sites. In ordinary households, epics are traditionally performed at night-time. Mongolian heroic epics can last several hours and some are performed over several nights.
As for a nomadic people who are not typically all mastered in reading and writing due to their mobile lifestyle, the heroic epic was an irreplaceable oral tradition which allows them learn and transmit their rich cultural heritage and immortalize heroic history of Mongolian people.
We can learn many details of traditions of ancient Mongolians from the epic stories such as; wedding, marriage, brotherhood, celebrations, war and battles, hunting and herding. Also we can learn their religion and worships, their life views and art of caring, comforting and pleasing the nature.
The Mongolian epic is one of forms of traditional folk oral expressions which consist from hundreds to thousands of lines. The epic is not only an oral expression but it is a phenomenon which combine different poetic narrative techniques and vocal improvisation.
Epic stories are great research material of linguistics since it keeps special oral dialects of tribes. That’s why 50 to 60 percent of international researchers and scientists study about Mongolian epic and art of epic stories.
Epic has a great goal of representing the most beautiful communication which is suitable as a goal of mutual-understanding and sustainable development of Declaration of Human Rights. Mongol epic united with Mongolian tradition, psychology and language which became the foundation of collectivity, social group and tribes furthermore it is an inseparable part of daily life, really important factor of peaceful living.

By the end of 19th century, there were around 230 Mongolian epic stories were kept as a national heritage, which were studied by local and international researchers.
During the seventy years of the Mongolian People’s Republic, traditional nomadic lifestyle and traditional culture were suppressed. In its aftermath, Mongolia experienced continued rapid urbanization against a backdrop of increasing globalization. As a consequence, the Mongolian epic lost its traditional place in the culture, and interest decreased correspondingly among the general public. The number and distribution of epic performances diminished drastically as a result.
Mongolian epics were once found across Mongolia. In today’s Mongolia, traditional nomadic lifestyles continue to face pressure from increased internal migration and industrialization. Trained professional epic masters have decreased in number and the repertory of existing performers has diminished, with the few remaining epic performers increasingly performing only parts of epics, largely on specific social and ceremonial occasions. The skills and talents of existing Tuuli performers are diminished compared to the singers of the past. And the epic is today at severe risk because of its shrinking social sphere, changing socio-economic conditions and the increasing popularity of mass entertainment media among youth.
To endure these risks, we need to stabilize and improve the today’s activities about epic story heritage and find sustainable financial support for them.
Nowadays the Government has a strategy to develop and recover epic art and increase the number of apprentice in our nation, especially the places where the epic has inherited well. In result numbers of the people who interest epic art and who practice epic storyteller have increased:
- Urianhai epic storyteller N.Damdindorj from Hovd aimag’s Duut soum, Seseer from Jargalant soum, Dorvod epic storyteller Punsantsogvoo from Uvs province Sagil soum and Khalha epic teller D.Olzii are highly involved in the project of heritage transmission by contributing their traditional knowledge.
- Urianhai epic storyteller E.Baatarjav, A.Baldandorj and B.Bayarmagnai are promoting the Mongolian epic in the country and to the overseas audiences. Above mentioned epic community has also involved in the research field, participated in the 2013 International "Central Asian Epics" II Symposium and Festival. Per Example, Epic singer A. Baldandorj arrived in Ulaanbaatar with his family during the Symposium. With his wife and children.
In 2011 the Government approved the National Safeguarding Plan of the Mongolian Epic. We also need international aid and support in order to protect Mongolian Epic story heritage and to inherit to the future generation, to study and to disseminate, therefore Mongolia has sent an “Application ICH-04” in 2011-2012 and thus request has been approved in 2013 .

The Government set following purposes during the reporting time in order to protect and keep the Epic story traditions. These are:
- To improve the ability and repertory of the epic story tellers.
- To increase epic story and its tellers’ value in the society and glorify them
- To inherit art of epic to the next generation and to increase the number of its audience and epic story tellers
- To study the art of epic, to advertise and disseminate them in the society and help to improve social knowledge about this art.
Outcomes
1. The Government with support of related NGO’s organized local and nationwide competitions among the storytellers and inheritors. Also evaluated their ability and repertory and granted and glorified them as disseminating their work. These competitions had a positive impact to study and disseminate epic stories and encouraged the ones on the field and helped them to be proud of the special heritage that they are inherited. They got more motivated to study more about the storytellers of their previous generations. For example: “National check-up for Epic art repertory” has organized in 2012 and a participant form Hovd province, Mr.Oldoh had participated. He was the oldest son of the famous Urianhai epic storyteller B.Urtnasan. He never interested in his father’s talent and he even never thought about doing such work. As he grew older it became clear for him that his family heritage going to be lost soon it made him feel sad. Then he decided to remember his childhood memories and together with his cousin A.Baldandorj he could recover 2 to 3 epic stories. Unfortunately he has died in 2013.
2. In order to increase epic story and its tellers’ value in the society and glorify them, the Government registered D.Olzii, A.Baldandorj, B.Urtnasan and T.Enkhbalsan in the national list of the talented people who inherited ICH in high level and prized them with money and certificate. Urianhai’s mighty epic storyteller B.Avirmed got government title “Appreciated by the state” in 1990 as the first prize winner of epic storytellers. In modern days D.Olzii got title “Mighty Pioneer of Culture”, B.Bayarmagnai, E.Baatarjav, A.Baldandorj and Z.Chuluunbaatar got title “Best cultural staff” and N.Ankhbayar, B.Bold, E.Mendbayar and H. Seseer got “National talented people” from the government and appreciated by the society.
3. Number of the young researchers has increased lately and many students are getting their degree on study of Epic art. Documentary movie “Mongol Epic”, "Altain Eznii Duudlaga" DVD and "Epic Time" TV series " have been made and several CDs has published which included the "Jangar" Epic storytelling series, 50 CD of B.Bayarmagnai and 7 CD of E.Baatarjav. Also some television programs made on the same topic and many interviews, articles and news about art of Epic published on newspapers, magazines and websites. It was a part of dissemination work and it helped to improve the social awareness and value about the art of epic.

Mongolian government has approved in 2011 decree-357 which is about following the National Safeguarding Plan “Epic art of Mongolia” in order to inherit and keep the Mongolian epic as it is and to support and glorify the epic storytellers. Also to keep the traditions around the art of epic. This Plan includes following works; to disseminate art of epic, recover and study the art, to make society know this art, to support government and non-government organizations involvement. To organize competitions and festivals under the topic, glorify the epic storytellers and to show financial support, etc.
Actions took in order to inherit and protect Mongolian art of epic:
A. Field study and inventorying
- There were total 7 to 8 people registered in Mongolia as an epic story tellers in 2009, by the time when we were making research to get register “Mongolian Epic” in UNESCO’s cultural heritage in need of urgent safeguarding list. But now there are 20 talented people who got that official title “epic storyteller” and they are inheriting this scarce and precious heritage. They all represent the tribes called Urianhai, Bayad, Durvud and Khalha. The epic stories are:   
- There are big and small around 30 Epic stories are included in their repertory and there is a positive vision in the future of Epic art and its practices.
B. Safeguarding and Transmission
- In order to recover the tradition of epic storytelling, we chose the method to inherit the oldest inheritors’ knowledge and talent to their children and younger generations. Centre for Cultural Heritage made in 2011 apprentice training contract with epic storyteller N.Damdindorj from Hovd province. He in charge of inheriting the Urianhai epic storytelling to the offspring the main inheritors. There are around 30 children attending in that training and they are learning following epic stories; “Worship of Altai”, “Narankhaan khuu” and “Dovon khar Bukh”.
- Also cooperated with Punsantsovoo from Uvs province in order to keep and protect the Dorvod type of Epic stories. There are 7 to 8 people are attending in his training and they started to learn “Worship of Altai” and “Khangal tashaa har kheer moritoi Khaan tsergiin hovguun”. Storyteller the D.Ulzii has been working actively and initiatively to inherit the Khalha epic stories and his early apprentices became well known artists in the society. Also Khalha storyteller B.Bayarmagnai closely working with both city and countryside high schools. He is demonstrating how to sing/tell the epic stories “Geser” and “Jangar” for secondary and high school students in their schools in order to disseminate this art.
- “National check-up for Epic art repertory” has organized in October 11th till 13th in 2012 in order to keep and protect “Mongolian Epic art”, to increase their repertory, to prepare the inheritors of future generation, to value storytellers’ talent and ability, to give them title and degrees and to glorify them. There were total 17 participants from Ulaanbaatar and Bayan-Ulgii, Uvs, Hovd, Dornogobi provinces were selected for the last performance day. E.Baatarjav got “Bronze Gerege”, N.Ankhbayar got “Silver Gerege” and A.Baldandorj got “Gold Gerege”.
- Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism conducts National Art Festival once in every three years and the last one organized in 2011. Uvs province’s Dorvod epic storyteller Sh.Punsantsogvoo and Bayad epic storyteller N.Ankhbayar got “Gold Star” prizes.
- Urianhai’s “Altan Huree” 7th Art and Sport festival organized in March 30-31st in 2012 in Orkhon aimag and 300 participants competed by 17 different art and sport ways. B.Bold got the first prize in the Epic story telling/singing performance.
C. Raising the awareness, dissemination and promotion
- Hovd province is well known by its many tribes. “Horde of heritage and culture” has established on 25th July 2010 in that province. This hall has each tribe’s halls such as; Hall of Zakhchin, Torguud and Urianhai etc. Cultural presentation of each tribe is being performed there and keeps disseminating their heritages. People started to hear epic story’s music and singing/telling in those halls during national celebrations and special days.
- The famous epic storyteller Parchin’s fame display placed in a local museum of Hyargas soum of Uvs province. Visitors can learn about his biography and his inherited heritage.
- In order to encourage and support the epic storytellers who influenced in inheritance and development of Epic art, we registered four epic storytellers in the national list of the talented people who inherited ICH in high level and gave them certificates. In result, general social view and value towards art of epic has improved.
- Epic storytellers started to get invited to perform in famous mountain worshipping ceremonies such as; Munkh hairhan, Otgontenger and Han Hohii etc.
- Science Academy’s Linguistic department’s oral literacy section organized in 2011, international science research meeting for the 100 years anniversary of the birth of famous epic storyteller S.Choisuren.
- Also the Academy published research and dissemination books during the reporting period: “Epics of S.Choisuren”, “Oral literacy of Mongol Urianhai”, “Saved Epics”, “Famous epic storytellers and their epics”, “Story and epics told by Gongor”, “Compared research of the epic of Jangar” and “Jangar”.
- Photo exhibition of the epic storytellers, introduction and related booklets were printed for the National check-up ceremony and all the news were disseminated by media. Also around 40 video materials got kept in Registration and Information Foundation archive. This activity will be held once in every two years in the future.
- "Central Asian Epics" II International symposium and festival has been held in Ulaanbaatar from 5-7th August, 2013. This event has gathered over 100 epic scholars, researchers and epic singers from 9 countries. Participants have discussed and shared their experiences and give their recommendations.

The safeguarding measures were elaborated with full participation of the ICH bearers, concerned representatives of relevant NGOs, and their opinions and recommendations were freely been reflected in the National Safeguarding Plan of the Mongol Epic.
The main activities under this project for safeguarding the epic, conducting research, advertising and transmitting to the younger generation were implemented with full participation of the epic performers. Actual epic performers - bearers:
N.Ankhbayar /39 years old/,
E.Baatarjav /41 years old, Uriankhai tribe/,
L. Baatarkhuu /25 years old, Uriankhai tribe/,
A.Baldandorj /35, Uriankhai tribe/,
B.Bayarmagnai /57, Khotgoid tribe/,
B.Bold /42, Altain Uriankhai tribe/,
N.Damdindorj /46, Uriankhai tribe/,
E. Mendbayar /23, Altain Uriankhai tribe/,
Sh.Puntsogtsovoo / 51, Durvud tribe /,
Z.Chuluunbaatar /54, Khalkh tribe/,
D.Ulzii /78, Khalkh tribe/,
U.Oldokh /57, Uriankhai tribe/,
Kh.Seseer /61, Uriankhai tribe/
The most of these epic performers are offspring of early epic storytellers and they are the people who are approved by the nation and the ones who are inheriting art of epic in this modern world. They are training their next generation as teaching and they are trying hard to keep the traditional form of Epics as how they were. Also they are very active members and they participate national festivals and competitions often. With the initiative of associations as Oirad’s “Ikh Hogsuu” and Urianhai’s “Altan Huree”, the organization of art and traditional sport festival competitions get bigger and they created Epic art nominees.
Through the local government administrations and Cultural Centres in each region with epics, the “Association of Mongol Tuuli” non-government organization had main responsibility for ensuring the viability of the epic at the local levels. As a consequence, the “Association of Mongol Tuuli” NGO had established the centralized regulatory groundwork for safeguarding the epic and ensuring its viability.

Timing and Budget
National program of “Mongolian Epic”
Activities - Implemented organization - Fund /USA $/
1. Organized “National check-up for Epic art repertory” in Ulaanbaatar, Center for Cultural Heritage - 6 165 $
2. Organized apprenticeship training in countryside, Center for Cultural Heritage -2 150 $
3. To glorify epic storytellers and to disseminate art of Epic, Center for Cultural Heritage -2 150$
4. Published books which included Epic storytellers’ biography and introductions, Center for Cultural Heritage, Language and literacy department, Academy of Science - 32 688$
5. Organized science and research meeting by the study of J.Buyan and S.Choisuren, Language and literacy department, Academy of Science - 7 169$
6. Creation of a registration-information database, Center for Cultural Heritage - 4 301$
7.Media and TV promotional production to disseminate epic art world, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Center for Cultural Heritage, Department of Language and literacy, Academy of Science - 1 434$
8. “Altain Eznii Duudlaga” DVD, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, Tuguldur Studio - 17 922$
9. Make an inventorying/study research of potential epic interested or inherited aimag, soum and family in order to give them some support, Center for Cultural Heritage - 2 150$
10. “Altan huree” 7th Art and Sport Festival, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism,
Uriankhai tradition development association - 2 150$
11. Central Asian Epics II, International Symposium and Festival
Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism,
NatCom,
Center for Cultural Heritage
Department of Language and literacy, Academy of Science - 40 144$
TOTAL - 118 423 $ /1$ - 1 395 MNT/

The inscription of the Mongolian epic into the UNESCO List of Urgent need of safeguarding of ICH showed big influence in Mongolian people's mind. Also it helped to safeguard, protect and transmit art of epic for the future generation and saved Mongolian people from the danger of losing their epic heritage and being forgotten it. Now the number of researchers and people who has interest and practice of epics got increased. It also created a new discipline in history and cultural fields.
The inscription also allowed to safeguard and develop the epic tradition step by step. For thus Mongolian government prepared and implemented the National Safeguarding Plan of the “Mongol Epic”. This project will run for 3 years and it will help to safeguard, protect, promote, transmit and disseminate the art of epic and to encourage the epic bearer community to participate and contribute their knowledge. Also to develop the public awareness. We started to gather all epic singing bearers throughout Mongolia, their repertory inventorying, competitions and all of them are showing good influence in their art work and ability. It is also very important to organize a national competition in order to encourage the bearers to develop their talent and capacity. In order to transmit the epic and help the new generation to understand and value the tradition of epics, it became a part of the education program in high and secondary school classes. Some schools have specific training for epic interested youth.
The viability of Mongol epic dramatically improved in this order during the report period:
- The repertoire and skills of the current epic singers; increasing the number of the epic heritage bearers and trainers; selecting and training the young learners; formulating the further training system for the transmitting epic performance tradition; and creating socio-cultural environment for the further survival and viability of Mongolian Traditional Epic in current situation will be enriched.
- Number of the epic heritage bearers from four to five folded, restoration and revival of the folk rituals and customs associated to the Mongolian Epic, revitalization and acquirement of some forgotten epics, traditional techniques, methods, skills and rituals relative to the narration of epic, and ensuring the maintenance of inheritable characters of epic increased.
- The number of practitioners increased
- The public awareness had raised,
- The system of identifying, registering and documenting of the epic bearers had established and further be continued constantly.
- The Database of the epic-performers is a subject to be enriched and improved year by year basis.
- The apprenticeship training program in the provinces such as Hovd and Uvs has great influences to nationwide.
This apprenticeship program will help to increase the number of epic singers in the future or thus who studied epics. Which means to increase the number of future audiences which will have interest on it, respect and understand that art. It is more important to create a sustainable financial support which is highly demanded to continue and improve the training activities.  

The epic singing communities are actively involved in the traditional “Mongol Epic” development activities in order to safeguard, protect, restore, develop, disseminate, transmit, inherit, teach and promote it through media, publication and radio.
- Epic performers, relevant State bodies, Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, “Association of Mongol Tuuli” non-government organization in collaboration with other relevant NGOs, as well as stakeholders had direct involvement and support for the implementation of the National Safeguarding Plan of the Mongolian Epic.
- The epic performers and concerned NGOs with dominant role in the project for restoring the apprenticeship method of epic and conduct training for the trainers-bearers under relevant program. The trainers-performers had directly involved in the coherent and serial set of training programs.
- Raised the public awareness at the local and national levels through TV shows, programs, publications, festivals, symposium and seminar.

Ms Ts.Tsendsuren
Head of the Cultural Heritage Departement,
Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism
Government building X, Place Barilgachid, Chingeltei District,
Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Tel: +976-9312-4367
Fax: +976-11-310466
email: tsendsuren0525@yahoo.com
Department is responsible for the method and planning of safeguarding the cultural heritage.
Centre for Cultural Heritage
This is a professional and certificated organization and its ICH section established in 2008 in order to protect both tangible and intangible cultural heritage. Organization works in worldwide to safeguard and protect documents and videos, research on ICH bearers, inventorying transmission program for future generations and central archive for registration and information.
Address: Mongolia, 21 06 20 a, Ulaanbaatar, Sukhbaatar district, Sukhbaatar square 3, Jamiyang’s street, B section of Central Cultural palace
POBox: Ulaanbaatar 210628, Mongolia
Director: G.Enkhbat
Tel Phone: + 976-11-312-735
+ 976-70110877
Fax: + 976-11-312735
E-mail: enkhbat@mongolheritage.mn
Web: www.monheritage.mn
“Mongol Epic” NGO
/ Head: A.Baldandorj. NGO which runs activities to epic bearers for transmission, teach and promote/
Address: Bayanzurkh district, 23rd horoo, Surguuliin A-5-60
Tel: + 976-94900904
+ 976- 99242363
Fax: 976-70154576
E-mail: baldaa_04@monheritage.mn

Following organizations and individuals cooperated together to make this report done:
- Cultural Heritage department of the Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism, leaded the reporting process
- Science Academy, Department of Language and Literacy.
- “Mongol Epic” NGO, Epic-bearers N.Damdindorj, A.Baldandorj, Punsantsogvoo, Seseer and Bayarmagnai .
In March 2012 the Government have established a commission to work on the national activity reports for the different measures taking by Mongolia to safeguard and protect the elements inscribed on UNESCO List of Urgent Safeguarding of ICH. This commission is represented by governmental and non governmental organizations, community, practitioners, bearers and individuals. Above mentioned members of the commission were approved. And during the process of preparation of this report, the community, practitioners and individuals have assisted and give information about their contribution to the activity depending their field and some community and association have sent an written report of their local activity.

Name

M.Tumenjargal

Title

Vice-Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism of Mongolia

Date

30-01-2014

Signature

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